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On the Deployment of Large-Scale High-Capacity Wireless Systems with Secondary Spectrum Access
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The avalanche in mobile data consumption represents a big challenge for mobile networks operators and national regulators. This thesis focuses on finding additional spectrum to meet this demand in a cost-efficient way by considering shared spectrum access. Our studies aim at identifying key factors in achieving large-scale business success,quantifying the spectrum availability and identifying suitable regulatory/sharing polices for large-scale secondary access in the aeronautical and radar bands. This thesis proposes a research methodology, that considers business, technical and regulatory aspects involved in assessing commercial viability of large-scale deployment of wireless networks, employing vertical spectrum sharing in the aeronautical and radar bands. We pinpoint the following criteria which are critical in ensuring business success:spectrum availability, radio technology availability, low-cost end-userdevices, system scalability and quality of service. Our investigation centers on the technical aspects of these criteria, and thus deals mainly with the assessment of spectrum availability. The availability of spectrum opportunities is found to be ample for adjacent channel usage despite the strict requirements of the radar receiver. However, it is alsovery location-dependent and mostly non-contiguous.Finally, with regard to the regulatory aspects, our results show thatapplying regulatory policies, especially to the deployment of secondary users, can boost availability in cities or urban areas where the capacity demand is high. In addition, Licensed Shared Access (LSA) is identified as a suitable regulatory framework to meet tough protection criteria ofthe radar receivers and to apply the selected regulatory policies to improve exploitation of sharing opportunities. Based on our results and analysis, we conclude that there is a significant amount of spectrum opportunities for large-scale secondary access in the aeronautical and radar bands from the technical point of view. However, the commercial viability of secondary spectrum access is still undetermined giventhe remaining uncertainties regarding its total cost and the exact time needed for relevant technology to become available. Moreover, thereis no single answer to the commercial viability since it will most likelydepend on the country or region in question, which affects the spectrum availability, which in turn is a key criterion for business success. Futurework should therefore strive to clarify these uncertainties and to identify new responsibilities for all the entities involved in the LSA framework. Moreover, a quantitative evaluation would be needed to obtain more explicit conclusions on the business viability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , viii, 58 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 14:04
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144861OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-144861DiVA: diva2:717746
Public defence
2014-05-26, Sal D, Forum Building, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20140519

Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Short Range White Space Utilization in Broadcast Systems for Indoor Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short Range White Space Utilization in Broadcast Systems for Indoor Environments
2010 (English)In: IEEE Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN), IEEE , 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As Digital Television Broadcasting spreads over theworld, existing (and more) TV channels can be distributed in lessspectrum in the spectrum traditionally allocated to TVbroadcasting. This freed spectrum is also referred to as the "DigitalDividend" and its use has been debated around the world. Inaddition, there is also a debate about the potential use of the “whitespace” within the TV-bands. This is due to the sparse frequencyplanning with large interference margins, which is typical in widearea broadcasting. Various technical approaches using Opportunistic Spectrum Access(OSA) have been proposed for unlicensed “white space” access tothe TV bands. Most of previous studies have focused on spectrumsensing, i.e. detecting “free channels”, where secondary users,utilizing White Space Devices (WSD) could avoid causing harmfulinterference to the TV receivers. However, interference caused byWSD is not only limited to co-channel interference. In particular, inshort-range scenarios, the adjacent channel interference is anequally severe problem. Assessing the feasibility of WSDs in shortrangeindoor scenarios, taking more interference mechanisms intoaccount is the objective of this paper. An Indoor home scenariowith Cable, Rooftop antenna and Set-top antenna reception ofDVB-T, has been analyzed. The spectrum reuse opportunities forWSDs have been determined, using the number of channels whereit is possible to transmit without causing harmful interference toDVB-T receivers as performance measure. Simulation results showthat the number of available channels for indoor unlicensed whitespace transmission appears to be significant in most of the studiedscenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2010
Keyword
White space, Digital Television Broadcasting, White Space Devices, Opportunistic Spectrum Access
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-62724 (URN)10.1109/DYSPAN.2010.5457866 (DOI)2-s2.0-77953228395 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum, 2010 IEEE
Note
QC 20120202Available from: 2012-02-02 Created: 2012-01-20 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
2. Experimental Verification of Indoor TV White Space Opportunity Prediction Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Verification of Indoor TV White Space Opportunity Prediction Model
2010 (English)In: 2010 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCom 2010, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent work has demonstrated that the underutilized spectrum in the Digital Television Bands, commonly referred to as TV White Space (TVWS), is a prime candidate for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA). However, a systematic assessment of the availability of this spectrum for secondary transmission was, until very recently, lacking. In a TVWS opportunity prediction model to estimate indoor secondary usage probability was proposed. In this paper we aim at verifying this model by means of measurement campaigns in both laboratory and real indoor environments. The match between the predictions from the simulation models in and measurement results suggest that the model provides a realistic evaluation of the opportunities in TVWS for low power indoor secondary usage.

Keyword
white space, digital television broadcasting, opportunistic spectrum access
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48305 (URN)10.4108/ICST.CROWNCOM2010.9286 (DOI)2-s2.0-77958168179 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5885-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCom 2010. Cannes, France 9 June 2010 - 11 June 2010
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
Wireless@kthEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20150710

Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2015-07-10Bibliographically approved
3. A model for Aggregate Adjacent Channel Interference in TV White Space
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model for Aggregate Adjacent Channel Interference in TV White Space
2011 (English)In: IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2011, 1-5 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The presence of white spaces and spectrum holes in the TV bands represents potential opportunities for alleviating the apparent spectrum scarcity. Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) has been proposed for the secondary user's operation and the main concern is the harmful interference that secondary systems could cause to the primary receivers. Existing studies have focused on establishing the limits for co-channel and adjacent channel interference when only one adjacent channel is used by a single secondary user. This paper presents a characterization of the aggregate adjacent channel interference (AACI) when different adjacent channels are simultaneously accessed by multiple secondary users or white space devices (WSDs). An analytical expression is proposed to approximate the limits of the tolerable AACI. Our model states that not only the interference received in each adjacent channel should stay below the corresponding threshold for that particular channel, but also the weighted sum of the total adjacent channel interference power should be kept below a certain threshold. Measurement campaigns show the cumulative effect of the adjacent channel interference (ACI) when multiple WSDs access multiple adjacent channels at the same time. The proposed analytical expression for AACI closely matches the measurement results.

Series
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, ISSN 1550-2252
Keyword
white space, opportunistic spectrum access, adjacent channel interference, measurements
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48302 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2011.5956237 (DOI)000295405800122 ()2-s2.0-80051981578 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-8332-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2011 IEEE 73rd Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC2011-Spring. Budapest, Hungary, 15 May 2011 - 18 May 2011
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeWireless@kth
Note

QC 20150706

Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2015-07-06Bibliographically approved
4. On the requirements of secondary access to 960-1215 MHz aeronautical spectrum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the requirements of secondary access to 960-1215 MHz aeronautical spectrum
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, DySPAN 2011, IEEE , 2011, 371-379 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we investigate the spectrum sharing requirements of secondary access to 960-1215 MHz band which is primarily allocated to aeronautical usage. Primary system of interest is distance measuring equipments (DME) aiding navigation of airplanes. We consider a scenario where indoor femtocells share the spectrum as secondary users. For the protection of the primary system, each secondary user decides whether to transmit or not depending on an interference threshold established by a central network. We provide a simple mathematical framework for analyzing the aggregate interference generated by multiple secondary users spreading in a large area. Requirement for the secondary access is established in terms of the size of exclusion region depending on the density of secondary users. Numerical results suggest the use of adjacent DME channel is required for a dense deployment of the secondary users. We discuss the challenges and implementation issues of practical secondary access, and suggest the directions of further research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Keyword
DME channel;aeronautical spectrum;aeronautical usage;aggregate interference;airplane navigation;distance measuring equipment;frequency 960 MHz to 1215 MHz;indoor femtocell;interference threshold;mathematical framework;primary system;secondary access;spectrum sharing requirement;aircraft communication;aircraft navigation;femtocellular radio;indoor radio;radio spectrum management;radiofrequency interference;wireless channels;
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-76143 (URN)10.1109/DYSPAN.2011.5936226 (DOI)2-s2.0-79960673764 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2011 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, DySPAN 2011. Aachen. 3 May 2011 - 6 May 2011
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 248303Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20120207

Available from: 2012-02-06 Created: 2012-02-06 Last updated: 2016-04-26Bibliographically approved
5. On the Feasibility of Indoor BroadbandSecondary Access to the 960-1215 MHz Aeronautical Spectrum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Feasibility of Indoor BroadbandSecondary Access to the 960-1215 MHz Aeronautical Spectrum
2013 (English)In: Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 24, no 7-8, 724-733 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we analyse the feasibility of indoor broadband service provisioning using secondary spectrum access to the 960–1215 MHz band, primarily allocated to the distance measuring equipment (DME) system for aeronautical navigation. We propose a practical secondary sharing scheme customised to the characteristics of the DME. Because the primary system performs a safety-of-life functionality, protection from harmful interference becomes extremely critical. The proposed scheme controls aggregate interference by imposing an individual interference threshold on the secondary users. We examine the feasibility of large scale secondary access in terms of the transmission probability of the secondary users that keeps the probability of harmful interference below a given limit. Uncertainties in the estimation of propagation loss and DME location affect the feasibility of the secondary access. Numerical results show that a large number of secondary users are able to operate in adjacent DME channels without harming the primary system even with limited accuracy on the estimation of the propagation loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2013
Keyword
Secondary spectrum access, distance measuring equipment, aggregate interference
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103049 (URN)10.1002/ett.2701 (DOI)000327423100010 ()2-s2.0-84896787855 (Scopus ID)
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeWireless@kth
Note

QC 20131107

Available from: 2012-10-02 Created: 2012-10-02 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
6. Availability Assessment of Secondary Usage in Aeronautical Spectrum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Availability Assessment of Secondary Usage in Aeronautical Spectrum
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), IEEE Communications Society, 2013, 4510-4515 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the available spectrum for massive indoor broadband secondary access in the 960-1215 MHz band, primarily allocated to the distance measuring equipment (DME) systems. We employ a practical sharing scheme where the secondary users share the DME spectrum via geo-location database and spectrum sensing. Since the DME system performs a safety-of-life functionality, protection from harmful interference becomes extremely critical. A DME channel is considered available in a certain time and location if the secondary users, under the applied sharing scheme, are able to successfully access the channel without violating the primary protection criteria. We analyze the impact of the secondary system parameters and the potential uncertainties in the applied sharing mechanism on the availability in the DME band. Numerical results show that at least 30% of the total DME band (57 MHz out of 190 MHz) can be available for a dense low-power indoor secondary network, even if conservative primary system protection criteria and high levels of uncertainty are considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Communications Society, 2013
Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1525-3511
Keyword
Availability, distance measuring equipment, aggregate interference
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103050 (URN)10.1109/WCNC.2013.6555305 (DOI)000326048104103 ()2-s2.0-84881589011 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-5937-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2013; Shanghai; China; 7 April 2013 through 10 April 2013
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeWireless@kth
Note

QC 20131107

Available from: 2012-10-02 Created: 2012-10-02 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
7. On the Sharing Opportunities for Ultra-Dense Networks in the Radar Bands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Sharing Opportunities for Ultra-Dense Networks in the Radar Bands
2014 (English)In: 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, DYSPAN 2014, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, 215-223 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Finding additional spectrum for indoor networks with very high capacity (ultra-dense networks, UDN) is a prime concern on the road to 5G wireless systems. Spectrum below or around 10 GHz has attractive propagation properties and previous work has indicated that vertical spectrum sharing between indoor users and outdoor wide-area services is feasible. In this paper, we focus on spectrum sharing between UDNs and radar systems. We propose and evaluate regulatory policies that improve sharing conditions/opportunities in areas with large demand (i.e. hot-spots and urban areas). We consider three regulatory policies: area power regulation, deployment location regulation and the combination of these. We address the scenario where secondary users can reliably exploit time and space domain sharing opportunities in the S- and Ku-Bands by means of geo-location databases and spectrum sensing. We evaluate these opportunities in terms of the required time-averaged separation distance between the radar system and the UDN that both protects the radar system as well as guarantees a minimum secondary transmission probability. Our results show that there are ample adjacent channel sharing opportunities for indoor usage in both the S- and Ku-Bands. In the Ku-Band, even outdoor hot-spot use is feasible with very relaxed restrictions. Co-channel usage in the S-band requires large separation distances that makes it practically unfeasible in cities with nearby radar sites. Overall, deployment location regulation seems to be the most effective means to limit interference to the radar system and improve sharing opportunities. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2014
Series
IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, ISSN 2334-3125
Keyword
radar spectrum, spectrum sharing, sharing op- portunities, regulatory policy
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-143967 (URN)10.1109/DySPAN.2014.6817798 (DOI)000341654800027 ()2-s2.0-84902145853 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-2661-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, DYSPAN 2014; McLean, VA; United States; 1 April 2014 through 4 April 2014
Projects
METIS
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20140407

Available from: 2014-04-03 Created: 2014-04-03 Last updated: 2014-10-21Bibliographically approved
8. Secondary Access to the Radar Spectrum Bands: Regulatory and Business Implications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Secondary Access to the Radar Spectrum Bands: Regulatory and Business Implications
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The large expected increase in the capacity requirements raises not only technical issues but also regulatory and business challenges. One of the key methods to increase the capacity of mobile networks in a cost efficient way is to find additional frequency spectrum. However, it is a difficult task since most of the spectrum is already allocated in long-term basis. Therefore, innovation in the technical and regulatory domain is needed to make additional spectrum available for mobile communications that not only improve spectrum utilization but also to make long-term investments feasible. Secondary spectrum access was proposed as a technical solution to improve spectrum utilization. However, uncertainties on the regulatory regime have been the main “show-stopper” for long-term investments.  This paper has devised techno-regulatory conditions for making large-scale secondary access to the "radar bands" an attractive business scenario from the MNO's perspective. Our numerical results showed that applying regulation on the deployment of secondary users can significantly improve sharing opportunities, especially in lower frequency bands (S-band) where the impact of interference aggregation is higher. We also identified Licensed Shared Access (LSA) as suitable authorization model for secondary access to the "radar bands" since it provides the level of reliability on the protection against harmful interference and it could also motivate long-term investments. Finally, establishing the right spectrum access cost or license fee for secondary access to the "radar bands" is crucial for achieving competitive edge over alternatives indoor solutions.

Keyword
radar bands, secondary spectrum access, secondary access availability, spectrum opportunities.
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-132302 (URN)
Conference
24th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society, Florence, Italy, 20 - 23 October 2013
Projects
Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for Twenty-twenty (2020) Information Society (METIS)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeWireless@kth
Note

QC 20131108

Available from: 2013-10-25 Created: 2013-10-25 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved
9. Is Spectrum Sharing in the Radar Bands Commercially Attractive?: A Regulatory and Business Overview
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Spectrum Sharing in the Radar Bands Commercially Attractive?: A Regulatory and Business Overview
(English)In: Telecommunications Policy, ISSN 0308-5961, E-ISSN 1879-3258Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The need to meet users’ expectations in the ”mobile data avalanche” represents a significant challenge for mobile networks operators (MNOs). More spectrum is a natural way to meet these requirements in a cost and time-efficient way; but new, exclusively licensed, spectrum is increasingly hard to come by. Instead, vertical spectrum sharing has been discussed as a potential solution for finding additional spectrum for mobile communications. In this paper, we focus on vertical spectrum sharing in the radar bands for providing short-range wireless access, e.g. indoors and in ”hotspots” that ”offload” mobile traffic demand. We propose a methodology for dealing with the technical, regulatory and business aspects of deploying large-scale wireless networks. Moreover, we identify the following criteria for achieving business success: spectrum availability, availability of low-cost end user devices, system scalability in terms of number of concurrently used devices and finally, the ability to guarantee a quality of service for the users.

Our technical availability assessment has identified geo-location database support as necessary technical enabler and detect-and-avoid mechanism as a beneficial technical enabler for improving sharing conditions. Therefore, we propose a sharing mechanism based on three components: a central spectrum manager witha geo-location database controlling the aggregate interference, a spectrum sensing mechanism and a fast feedback between the radars and the central spectrum manager. Moreover, Licensed Shared Access (LSA) was found to be the suitable regulatory framework to support the proposed sharing mechanism and regulatory policies in real-life implementation. Our business feasibility assessment concludes that there is enough spectrum available for indoor and hotspots communication in urban areas in the radar bandsto make a large scale system commercially viable. Service quality can be guaranteedand there is a strong potential to construct low-cost devices. Uncertainties do, however, remain regarding the spectrum access cost.

Keyword
radar bands, short range communication, regulatory framework, business analysis.
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145337 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-05-16 Created: 2014-05-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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