Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
New Methods in the growth of InP on Si and Regrowth of Semi-insulating InP for Photonic Devices
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses new methods in the growth of indium phosphide on silicon for enabling silicon photonics and nano photonics as well as efficient and cost-effective solar cells. It also addresses the renewal of regrowth of semi-insulating indium phosphide for realizing buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers with high power and wall plug efficiency for sensing applications.

As regards indium phosphide on silicon, both crystalline and polycrystalline growth methods are investigated. The crystalline growth methods are: (i) epitaxial lateral overgrowth to realize large area InP on Si, for silicon photonics (ii) a modified epitaxial lateral overgrowth method, called corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth, to obtain indium phosphide/silicon heterointerface for efficient and cost effective solar cells and (iii) selective growth of nanopyramidal frusta on silicon for nanophotonics. The polycrystalline growth method on silicon for low cost solar cell fabrication has been realized via (i) phosphidisation of indium oxide coating synthesized from solution chemistry and (ii) phosphidisation cum growth on indium metal on silicon. All our studies involve growth, growth analysis and characterization of all the above crystalline and polycrystalline layers and structures.

After taking into account the identified defect filtering mechanisms, we have implemented means of obtaining good optical quality crystalline layers and structures in our epitaxial growth methods. We have also identified feasible causes for the persistence of certain defects such as stacking faults. The novel methods of realizing indium phosphide/silicon heterointerface and nanopyramidal frusta of indium phosphide on silicon are particularly attractive for several applications other than the ones mentioned here.

Both the polycrystalline indium phosphide growth methods result in good optical quality material on silicon. The indium assisted phosphidisation cum growth method normally results in larger grain size indium phosphide than the one involving phosphidisation of indium oxide. These two methods are generic and can be optimized for low cost solar cells of InP on any flexible substrate.

The method of regrowth of semi-insulating indium phosphide that is routinely practiced in the fabrication of buried heterostructure telecom laser has been implemented for quantum cascade lasers. The etched ridges of the latter can be 6-15 µm deep, which is more than 2-3 times as those of the former. Although this is a difficult task, through our quick and flexible regrowth method we have demonstrated buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers with an output power up to 2. 5 W and wall plug efficiency up to 9% under continuous operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xi, 84 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2014:10
National Category
Engineering and Technology Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145375ISBN: 978-91-7595-157-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-145375DiVA: diva2:718066
Public defence
2014-06-12, Sal E, Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140523

Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2014-12-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Morphological evolution during epitaxial lateral overgrowth of indium phosphide on silicon
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphological evolution during epitaxial lateral overgrowth of indium phosphide on silicon
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 332, no 1, 27-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP from mesh and line openings on masked InP seed layer on Si(0 0 1) wafer is investigated. Coalescence occurred more rapidly from the mesh openings than from the line openings. Lethargic coalescence in the line openings is attributed to the gradual formation of growth retarding boundary planes in the initial stages of growth. Extended growth leads to complete coalescence in both types of openings. The surface roughness of the coalesced layer is inversely proportional to its thickness. Cathodoluminescence studies on the uncoalesced islands show the emergence of facets with orientation-dependent dopant concentration, but reveal no defects, in contrast to the coalesced regions. The latter are relaxed and their dislocation density deduced from panchromatic cathodoluminescence mapping varies from 6 x 10(6) to 4 x 10(7) cm(-2) depending on the layer thickness; the reduced density at higher thickness indicates partial self annihilation of dislocations. TEM cross-section studies show that most of the threading dislocations originating in the InP seed layer/Si interface are blocked by the mask, but new dislocations are generated. Some of these dislocations are associated with bounding planar defects such as stacking faults, possibly generated during lateral growth across the mask due to unevenness of the mask surface.

Keyword
Characterization, Crystal morphology, Defects, Hydride vapor phase epitaxy, Semiconductor III-V materials
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-46176 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2011.07.022 (DOI)000295304200006 ()2-s2.0-80052330407 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20111102Available from: 2011-11-02 Created: 2011-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Selective area heteroepitaxy through nanoimprint lithography for large area InP on Si
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective area heteroepitaxy through nanoimprint lithography for large area InP on Si
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 9, no 7, 1610-1613 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of nanoimprint lithography, a low cost and time saving alternative to E-beam lithography, for growing heteroepitaxial indium phosphide layer on silicon is demonstrated. Two types of patterns on 500 nm and 200 nm thick silicon dioxide mask either on InP substrate or InP seed layer on silicon were generated by UV nanoimprint lithography: (i) circular openings of diameter 150 nm and 200 nm and (ii) line openings of width ranging from 200 nm to 500 nm. Selective area growth and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP were conducted on these patterns in a low pressure hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. The epitaxial layers obtained were characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and micro photoluminescence. The growth from the circular openings on InP substrate and InP (seed) on Si substrate is extremely selective with similar growth morphology. The final shape has an octahedral flat top pyramid type geometry. These can be used as templates for growing InP nanostructures on silicon. The grown InP layers from the line openings on InP substrates are ∌ 2.5 Όm thick with root mean square surface roughness as low as 2 nm. Completely coalesced layer of InP over an area of 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm was obtained.The room temperature photoluminescence intensity from InP layers on InP substrate is 55% of that of homoepitaxial InP layer. The decrease in PL intensity with respect to that of the homoepitaxial layer is probably due to defects associated with stacking faults caused by surface roughness of the mask surface. Thus in this study, we have demonstrated that growth of heteroepitaxial InP both homogeneously and selectively on the large area of silicon can be achieved. This opens up the feasibility of growing InP on large area silicon for several photonic applications.

Keyword
Epitaxial lateral overgrowth, Heteroepitaxy, Indium phosphide on silicon, Nanoimprint lithography
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100480 (URN)10.1002/pssc.201100678 (DOI)000306479300024 ()2-s2.0-84863995899 (Scopus ID)
Conference
16th International Semiconducting and Insulating Materials Conference (SIMC-XVI) Location: Royal Inst Technol (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden Date: JUN 19-23, 2011
Note
QC 20120817Available from: 2012-08-10 Created: 2012-08-09 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Simple Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth Process as a Strategy for Photonic Integration on Silicon
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simple Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth Process as a Strategy for Photonic Integration on Silicon
Show others...
2014 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 20, no 4, 8201407- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we propose a strategy to achieve monolithic integration of III-Vs on Si for photonic integration through a simple process. By mimicking the SiO2/Si/SiO2 waveguide necessary to couple light from the gain medium on its top, we adopt a similar to 2 mu m thick silicon dioxide mask for epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of InP on Si. The ELOG InP layer as wells as the subsequently grown quantum wells (similar to 1. 55 mu m) have been analyzed by photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy and found to have high optical quality and very good interface. The studies are strategically important for a monolithic platform that holds great potential in addressing the future need to have an integrated platform consisting of both III-Vs and Si on same chip.

Keyword
Monolithic integration of III-Vs on Si, integrated photonics, III-V lasers on Si, ELOG
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141954 (URN)10.1109/JSTQE.2013.2294453 (DOI)000330317900027 ()2-s2.0-84957883633 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20140228

Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. High quality InP nanopyramidal frusta on Si
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High quality InP nanopyramidal frusta on Si
Show others...
2014 (English)In: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, E-ISSN 1466-8033, Vol. 16, no 21, 4624-4632 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanosized octagonal pyramidal frusta of indium phosphide were selectively grown at circular hole openings on a silicon dioxide mask deposited on indium phosphide and indium phosphide pre-coated silicon substrates. The eight facets of the frusta were determined to be {111} and {110} truncated by a top (100) facet. The size of the top flat surface can be controlled by the diameter of the openings in the mask and the separation between them. The limited height of the frusta is attributed to kinetically controlled selective growth on the (100) top surface. Independent analyses with photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence and scanning spreading resistance measurements confirm certain doping enrichment in the frustum facets. This is understood to be due to crystallographic orientation dependent dopant incorporation. The blue shift from the respective spectra is the result of this enrichment exhibiting the Burstein-Moss effect. Very bright panchromatic cathodoluminescence images indicate that the top surfaces of the frusta are free from dislocations. The good optical and morphological quality of the nanopyramidal frusta indicates that the fabrication method is very attractive for the growth of site-, shape-, and number-controlled semiconductor quantum dot structures on silicon for nanophotonic applications.

Keyword
Vapor-Phase Epitaxy, Quantum-Well Laser, Lateral Overgrowth, Dot, Single, Photoluminescence, Microscopy, Dependence, Threshold, Growth
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145320 (URN)10.1039/c3ce42231c (DOI)000335923800033 ()2-s2.0-84899871741 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20140523

Available from: 2014-05-15 Created: 2014-05-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Realization of atomically abrupt InP/Si heterojunction and dislocationreduction via corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Realization of atomically abrupt InP/Si heterojunction and dislocationreduction via corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth
(English)In: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, E-ISSN 1466-8033Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145362 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
6. Optimization of InP growth directly on Si by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of InP growth directly on Si by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth
2015 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 48, no 4, 045102- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an attempt to achieve an InP-Si heterointerface, a new and generic method, the corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) technique in a hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor, was studied. An InP seed layer on Si (0 0 1) was patterned into closely spaced etched mesa stripes, revealing the Si surface in between them. The surface with the mesa stripes resembles a corrugated surface. The top and sidewalls of the mesa stripes were then covered by a SiO2 mask after which the line openings on top of the mesa stripes were patterned. Growth of InP was performed on this corrugated surface. It is shown that growth of InP emerges selectively from the openings and not on the exposed silicon surface, but gradually spreads laterally to create a direct interface with the silicon, hence the name CELOG. We study the growth behavior using growth parameters. The lateral growth is bounded by high index boundary planes of {3 3 1} and {2 1 1}. The atomic arrangement of these planes, crystallographic orientation dependent dopant incorporation and gas phase supersaturation are shown to affect the extent of lateral growth. A lateral to vertical growth rate ratio as large as 3.6 is achieved. X-ray diffraction studies confirm substantial crystalline quality improvement of the CELOG InP compared to the InP seed layer. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the formation of a direct InP-Si heterointerface by CELOG without threading dislocations. While CELOG is shown to avoid dislocations that could arise due to the large lattice mismatch (8%) between InP and Si, staking faults could be seen in the layer. These are probably created by the surface roughness of the Si surface or SiO2 mask which in turn would have been a consequence of the initial process treatments. The direct InP-Si heterointerface can find applications in high efficiency and cost-effective Si based III-V semiconductor multijunction solar cells and optoelectronics integration.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145363 (URN)10.1088/0022-3727/48/4/045102 (DOI)000348300900003 ()2-s2.0-84921046568 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Energy AgencyVINNOVA
Note

Updated from "Pre-print" to "Article in journal". QC 20150227

Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
7. Polycrystalline InP on Si by using In metal assisted growth in hydride  vapor phase epitaxy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polycrystalline InP on Si by using In metal assisted growth in hydride  vapor phase epitaxy
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145369 (URN)
Note

QC 20150629

Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
8. Demonstration of a quick process to achieve buried heterostructure quantum cascade laser leading to high power and wall plug efficiency
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demonstration of a quick process to achieve buried heterostructure quantum cascade laser leading to high power and wall plug efficiency
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 53, no 8, 087104- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Together with the optimal basic design, buried heterostructure quantum cascade laser (BH-QCL) with semi-insulating regrowth offers a unique possibility to achieve an effective thermal dissipation and lateral single mode. We demonstrate here the realization of BH-QCLs with a single-step regrowth of highly resistive (>1 x 10(8) ohm . cm) semi-insulating InP: Fe in <45 min for the first time in a flexible hydride vapor phase epitaxy process for burying ridges etched down to 10 to 15 mu m depth, both with and without mask overhang. The fabricated BH-QCLs emitting at similar to 4.7 and similar to 5.5 mu m were characterized. 2-mm-long 5.5-mu m lasers with a ridge width of 17 to 22 mu m, regrown with mask overhang, exhibited no leakage current. Large width and high doping in the structure did not permit high current density for continuous wave (CW) operation. 5-mm-long 4.7-mu m BH-QCLs of ridge widths varying from 6 to 14 mu m regrown without mu mask overhang, besides being spatially monomode, TM00, exhibited wall plug efficiency (WPE) of similar to 8 to 9% with an output power of 1.5 to 2.5 W at room temperature and under CW operation. Thus, we demonstrate a quick, flexible, and single-step regrowth process with good planarization for realizing buried QCLs leading to monomode, high power, and high WPE.

Keyword
buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers, high-power, high wall plug efficiency quantum cascade laser, hydride vapor phase epitaxy regrowth
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-150934 (URN)10.1117/1.OE.53.8.087104 (DOI)000341195300052 ()2-s2.0-84904759280 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 317884
Note

QC 20140912. Updated from manuscript to published article. Previous title "Demonstration of a quick process to achieve buried heterostructure QCL leading to high power and wall plug efficiency".

Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-09-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
9. Multi-regrowth steps for the realization of buried single ridge and μ-stripes quantum cascade lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-regrowth steps for the realization of buried single ridge and μ-stripes quantum cascade lasers
Show others...
2013 (English)In: 2013 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), IEEE , 2013, 6562597- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We report on the realization of buried single ridge and μ-stripes quantum cascade lasers using HVPE and MOVPE regrowth steps of semi-insulating InP:Fe and Si doped layers. We present here the preliminary results obtained on these devices. The reduction of the thermal resistance achieved using semi-insulating InP:Fe for regrowth planarization and μ-stripe arrays approaches are shown and performance perspectives are addressed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2013
Series
Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, ISSN 1092-8669
Keyword
μ-stripes arrays, MOVPE and HVPE, Quantum Cascade Lasers, Thermal resistance
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133844 (URN)10.1109/ICIPRM.2013.6562597 (DOI)2-s2.0-84882383762 (Scopus ID)978-146736130-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 25th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM 2013; Kobe; Japan; 19 May 2013 through 23 May 2013
Note

QC 20131112

Available from: 2013-11-12 Created: 2013-11-11 Last updated: 2014-05-23Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Wondwosen metaferia_PhD_Thesis(4960 kB)854 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 4960 kBChecksum SHA-512
825d17c8ea34a5cc0dbdb495228b1b1b7c7768df327b8aac3c95fe88eba029bce7fa414c90ea35d3b9d03e4e4e1f9dfac714bfe4b10e63ea7cb955ddc3f3d783
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Metaferia, Wondwosen Tilahun
By organisation
Semiconductor Materials, HMA
Engineering and TechnologyNano Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 854 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 618 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf