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Efficient Spectrum Utilization of Uhf Broadcast Band
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. (Radio System)
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The UHF band between 470-790 MHz, currently occupied by digital ter- restrial TV (DTT) distribution in Europe, is widely regarded as a premium spectrum band for providing mobile coverage. With the exponential increase in wireless data traffic in recent years, there has been growing interests in gaining access to this spectrum band for wireless broadband services. The secondary access in TV White Space is considered as one cost-effective way to reuse the spectrum unoccupied by the primary DTT network. On the other hand, the declining influence of DTT and the converging trends of video con- sumption on TV and mobile platforms are new incentives for the regulator to reconsider the optimal utilization of the UHF broadcast band. The proposal to re-farm the UHF band for a converged content distribution network was born under theses circumstances.

This thesis intends to develop a methodology for evaluating the technical performance of these options for utilizing UHF broadcast band and quantify- ing their gains in terms of achievable extra capacity and spectrum savings. For the secondary access in TV white space, our study indicates a considerable po- tential for low power secondary, which is mostly limited by the adjacent chan- nel interference generated from the densely deployed secondary devices due to the cumulative effect of multichannel interference. On the other hand, this potential does not translate directly into capacity for a WiFi-like secondary system based on CSMA/CA protocol, as the network congestion and self- interference within the secondary system has a greater impact on the network throughput than the primary interference constraint.

Our study on the cellular content distribution network reveals more po- tential benefits for re-farming the UHF broadcast band and reallocating it for a converged platform. This platform is based on cellular infrastructure and can provide TV service with the same level of quality requirement as DTT by delivering the video content via either broadcast or unicast as the situa- tion dictates. We have developed a resource manage framework to minimize its spectrum requirement for providing TV service and identified a significant amount of spectrum that can be reused by the converged platform to provide extra mobile broadband capacity in urban and sparsely populated rural areas.

Overall, we have arrived at the conclusion that the concept of cellular con- tent distribution in a re-farmed UHF band shows a more promising prospect than the secondary access in TV white space in the long run. Nevertheless, low power secondary is still considered as a flexible and low-cost way to exploit the underutilized spectrum in the short term, despite its uncertainty in future availability. On the other hand, the re-farming of UHF broadcast band is a long and difficult regulation process with substantial opposition from the in- cumbent.The results from this study could serve as input for future regulatory decisions on the UHF band allocation and cost-benefit analysis for deploying new systems to access this spectrum band. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , 157 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 1406
Keyword [en]
TV White Space, CellTV, UHF Band, Spectrum
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-146078OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-146078DiVA: diva2:722137
Public defence
2014-06-12, Sal E, Forum, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
EU FP7 QUASAREU FP7 METIS
Note

QC 20140609

Available from: 2014-06-09 Created: 2014-06-05 Last updated: 2014-06-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experimental Verification of Indoor TV White Space Opportunity Prediction Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Verification of Indoor TV White Space Opportunity Prediction Model
2010 (English)In: 2010 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCom 2010, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent work has demonstrated that the underutilized spectrum in the Digital Television Bands, commonly referred to as TV White Space (TVWS), is a prime candidate for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA). However, a systematic assessment of the availability of this spectrum for secondary transmission was, until very recently, lacking. In a TVWS opportunity prediction model to estimate indoor secondary usage probability was proposed. In this paper we aim at verifying this model by means of measurement campaigns in both laboratory and real indoor environments. The match between the predictions from the simulation models in and measurement results suggest that the model provides a realistic evaluation of the opportunities in TVWS for low power indoor secondary usage.

Keyword
white space, digital television broadcasting, opportunistic spectrum access
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48305 (URN)10.4108/ICST.CROWNCOM2010.9286 (DOI)2-s2.0-77958168179 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5885-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCom 2010. Cannes, France 9 June 2010 - 11 June 2010
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
Wireless@kthEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20150710

Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2015-07-10Bibliographically approved
2. A model for Aggregate Adjacent Channel Interference in TV White Space
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model for Aggregate Adjacent Channel Interference in TV White Space
2011 (English)In: IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2011, 1-5 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The presence of white spaces and spectrum holes in the TV bands represents potential opportunities for alleviating the apparent spectrum scarcity. Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) has been proposed for the secondary user's operation and the main concern is the harmful interference that secondary systems could cause to the primary receivers. Existing studies have focused on establishing the limits for co-channel and adjacent channel interference when only one adjacent channel is used by a single secondary user. This paper presents a characterization of the aggregate adjacent channel interference (AACI) when different adjacent channels are simultaneously accessed by multiple secondary users or white space devices (WSDs). An analytical expression is proposed to approximate the limits of the tolerable AACI. Our model states that not only the interference received in each adjacent channel should stay below the corresponding threshold for that particular channel, but also the weighted sum of the total adjacent channel interference power should be kept below a certain threshold. Measurement campaigns show the cumulative effect of the adjacent channel interference (ACI) when multiple WSDs access multiple adjacent channels at the same time. The proposed analytical expression for AACI closely matches the measurement results.

Series
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, ISSN 1550-2252
Keyword
white space, opportunistic spectrum access, adjacent channel interference, measurements
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48302 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2011.5956237 (DOI)000295405800122 ()2-s2.0-80051981578 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-8332-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2011 IEEE 73rd Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC2011-Spring. Budapest, Hungary, 15 May 2011 - 18 May 2011
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeWireless@kth
Note

QC 20150706

Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2015-07-06Bibliographically approved
3. Permissible Transmit Power for Secondary User in TV White Space
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Permissible Transmit Power for Secondary User in TV White Space
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Secondary spectrum access to TV white spaces is considered as a promising solution to relieve the spectrum shortage. In Europe, SE43 working group in CEPT is leading the discussion on the technical requirements for exploiting TV white spaces through the recent ECC report 159. Its analytical approach for determining the maximum permissible power for the secondary user, however, overestimates the power level, and leads to significant violation of the interference limit for TV reception. In this letter, we address the problem by proposing a new approach for determining the secondary user transmit power based on the framework established in ECC report 159. Monte Carlo simulation shows that our method keeps the interference lose to the target.

Keyword
TV white space, ECC Report 159, interference protection, transmit power, shadow fading
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104415 (URN)
Conference
7th International Conference Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications,18th to 20th June 2012 Stockholm,Sweden
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
ICT - The Next GenerationWireless@kthEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20121113

Available from: 2012-11-13 Created: 2012-11-01 Last updated: 2014-06-10Bibliographically approved
4. Controlling Aggregate Interference under Adjacent Channel Interference Constraint in TV White Space
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlling Aggregate Interference under Adjacent Channel Interference Constraint in TV White Space
2012 (English)In: 2012 7th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks (CROWNCOM), IEEE , 2012, 1-6 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

TV White space, where secondary systems can be deployed inside the TV coverage area and utilize the geographically unoccupied TV channels, is considered as a promising solution to relieve the spectrum shortage. To utilize this spectrum, the secondary users must ensure the protection of TV receptionfrom harmful interference on both co-channel and adjacent channels. In this paper, we propose an analytical approach to determining the permissible transmit power for short-range secondary users under aggregate adjacent channel interferenceconstraint in TV white space. This approach employs statistical interference modeling which considers random deployment of secondary users, antenna gain pattern, shadow fading, and the cumulative effect of interference from multiple adjacent channels. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme permits significantly higher transmit power than the existing deterministic method does, while at the same time, it keeps the required level of TV protection. Therefore, considerable potential for the shortrange secondary access to TV white space is expected with our approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
TV White Space, aggregate interference, transmit power, adjacent channel, geo-location database
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104564 (URN)10.4108/icst.crowncom.2012.248439 (DOI)000310377900001 ()2-s2.0-84869459967 (Scopus ID)978-1-936968-55-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 7th International ICST Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Ntworks and Communications, CROWNCOM 2012; Stockholm; 18 June 2012 through 20 June 2012
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
ICT - The Next GenerationWireless@kthEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20121106

Available from: 2012-11-06 Created: 2012-11-06 Last updated: 2014-06-09Bibliographically approved
5. Secondary spectrum access in TV-bands with combined co-channel and adjacent channel interference constraints
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Secondary spectrum access in TV-bands with combined co-channel and adjacent channel interference constraints
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, DYSPAN 2012, 2012, 452-460 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The potential of VHF/UHF band as a candidate for secondary spectrum access, so called ”TV white spaces”, has been intensively investigated in recent years. However, the impact of the accumulated interference from multiple secondary users on different adjacent channels has not been well studied thus far, let alone the effect of combined interference from both co-channel and adjacent channels. This paper presents a framework for assessing secondary spectrum reuse opportunities for portable and mobile devices that comply with geo-location database concepts. The opportunity is evaluated in terms of the maximal number of secondary users that can access the ”TV white space” simultaneously. Particular emphasis is given to the protection of TV receiver from harmful aggregate interference originated from not only the secondary users outside the TV coverage on the same channel but also those close to the TV receivers operating on different adjacent TV channels. An optimization problem is solved to maximize the number of secondary users admitted to the available TV channels at different locations. Through in-depth analysis of the interference characteristics of the optimal solution, it is identified that the cumulative effect of adjacent channel interferences has the dominant impact on TV reception, particularly for the case of secondary devices with limited transmit power. This suggests the possibility to achieve near-optimal exploitation of TV-bands for secondary reuse without explicit coordination of co-channel interference from the secondary users deployed over a wide geographical area.

Keyword
TV White Space, secondary spectrum reuse, optimization, aggregate interference, adjacent channel interference, geo-location database
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104565 (URN)10.1109/DYSPAN.2012.6478169 (DOI)000320661800060 ()2-s2.0-84876026432 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-4448-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, DYSPAN 2012; Bellevue, WA; United States; 16 October 2012 through 19 October 2012
Projects
QUASAR
Funder
ICT - The Next GenerationWireless@kthEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20121106

Available from: 2012-11-06 Created: 2012-11-06 Last updated: 2014-06-09Bibliographically approved
6. On the Capacity of Wi-Fi System in TV White Space with Aggregate Interference Constraint
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Capacity of Wi-Fi System in TV White Space with Aggregate Interference Constraint
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2013 8th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCOM 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 123-128 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present a quantitative assessmentof the performance of a Wi-Fi like system in TV white space andcompare it with the traditional Wi-Fi system in the ISM band.Particular emphasis is given to the constraint on the aggregatesecondary interference on TV reception, which is regarded as thepremise of the link throughput analysis that followed. Numericalevaluation is performed over different scenarios where the TVreceive signal strength, number of unoccupied TV channels, userdensity are varied. Our results show that the primary interferenceconstraint has only significant impact on the secondary systemperformance in rural scenario with low TV receive signalstrength. In other cases, where higher transmit power does notguarantee better performance, the capacity of the system islimited by the secondary self-interference or collisions rather thanthe interference constraint. Therefore, efficient TV White Spaceutilization can be achieved by properly setting the secondarytransmit power adaptive to different environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Keyword
adjacent channel interference, aggregate interference, geo-location database, secondary spectrum reuse, TV White Space
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-138291 (URN)10.1109/CROWNCom.2013.6636805 (DOI)2-s2.0-84890831659 (Scopus ID)978-147992120-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 8th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCOM 2013; Washington, DC; United States; 8 July 2013 through 10 July 2013
Note

QC 20140107

Available from: 2013-12-18 Created: 2013-12-18 Last updated: 2014-06-09Bibliographically approved
7. CellTV - On the Benefit of TV Distribution Over Cellular Networks: A Case Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CellTV - On the Benefit of TV Distribution Over Cellular Networks: A Case Study
Show others...
2014 (English)In: IEEE transactions on broadcasting, ISSN 0018-9316, E-ISSN 1557-9611, Vol. 60, no 1, 73-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As mobile IP-access is becoming the dominant technology for providing wireless services, the demand for more spectrum for this type of access is increasing rapidly. Since IP-access can be used for all types of services, instead of a plethora of dedicated, single-service systems, there is a significant potential to make spectrum use more efficient. In this paper, the feasibility and potential benefit of replacing the current terrestrial UHF TV broadcasting system with a mobile, cellular data (IP-) network are analyzed. In the cellular network, TV content would be provided as one of the services (CellTV). In the investigation, we consider typical Swedish rural and urban environments. We use different models for TV viewing patterns and cellular technologies as expected in the year 2020. Results of the quantitative analysis indicate that CellTV distribution can be beneficial if the TV consumption trend goes toward more specialized programming, more local contents, and more on-demand requests. Mobile cellular systems, with their flexible unicast capabilities, will be an ideal platform to provide these services. However, the results also demonstrate that CellTV is not a spectrum-efficient replacement for terrestrial TV broadcasting with current viewing patterns (i.e., a moderate number of channels with each a high numbers of viewers). In this case, it is doubtful whether the expected spectrum savings can motivate the necessary investments in upgrading cellular sites and developing advanced TV receiver required for the success of CellTV distribution.

Keyword
UHF TV band, terrestrial TV broadcasting, multimedia broadcast/multicast service, single frequency network, unicast video streaming
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144378 (URN)10.1109/TBC.2013.2295255 (DOI)000332732300007 ()2-s2.0-84898602370 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20140422

Available from: 2014-04-22 Created: 2014-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
8. Opportunities and challenges forTV and Mobile broadband in 470-790 MHz (P8)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunities and challenges forTV and Mobile broadband in 470-790 MHz (P8)
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-146238 (URN)
Conference
24th European Regional InternationalTelecommunication Society Conference, Florence, Italy, October, 2013
Note

QC 20140609

Available from: 2014-06-10 Created: 2014-06-10 Last updated: 2014-06-10Bibliographically approved
9. Spectrum Requirement for Cellular TV distribution in UHF Band from Urban to Rural Environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spectrum Requirement for Cellular TV distribution in UHF Band from Urban to Rural Environment
2014 (English)In: 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DYSPAN), IEEE Computer Society, 2014, 362-365 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An the number of TV-channels increase and the number of viewers per channel decreases, Terrestrial Broadcasting is becoming a less attractive way to distribute TV. In addition it does not represent a very efficient use of the UHF band (470790 MHz). In this paper we discuss an alternative, converged platform for TV and mobile broadband provisioning based on LTE cellular technology and infrastructure, here referred to as CelITV. The key feature of Cell-TV is the ability to switch between a unicast mode for small viewer populations and broadcast over LTE single frequency networks (SFN) for popular content. The main advantage is that the spectrum can flexibly be shared with LTE mobile data services, effectively freeing significant parts of the UHF spectrum for these purposes. Based on a case study of the greater Stockholm area, significant potential for spectrum saving is identified in urban areas where the need for spectrum is the largest. Meanwhile, only limited spectrum savings are observed in rural areas due to the large user populations in each cell and the long inter-site distance. As most of the TV channels are broadcasted in urban areas but unicasted in rural areas, this switch of transmission modes causes considerably high spectrum demand in suburban areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2014
Series
IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, ISSN 2334-3125
Keyword
UHF TV band, Terrestrial TV Broadcasting, Multimedia BroadcastinWMulticast Service, Single Frequency Network, Unicast Video Streaming
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145737 (URN)10.1109/DySPAN.2014.6817815 (DOI)000341654800044 ()2-s2.0-84902131777 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-2661-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, DYSPAN 2014; McLean, VA; United States; 1 April 2014 through 4 April 2014
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20140609

Available from: 2014-05-28 Created: 2014-05-28 Last updated: 2016-06-15Bibliographically approved
10. Cellular TV Distribution in Heterogeneous Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cellular TV Distribution in Heterogeneous Environments
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-146242 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-06-10 Created: 2014-06-10 Last updated: 2014-06-10Bibliographically approved

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