Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Safety Analysis of Na and Pb-Bi Coolants in Response to Beam Instabilities
KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6082-8913
Argonne National Laboratory.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
Show others and affiliations
2003 (English)In: UTILISATION AND RELIABILITY OF HIGH POWER PROTON ACCELERATORS, WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS, 2003, 227-236 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A comparative safety study has been performed on sodium vs. lead/bismuth as coolant for accelerator-driven systems. Transient studies are performed for a beam overpower event. We examine a fuel type of recent interest in the research on minor actinide burners, i.e. uranium-free oxide fuel. A strong positive void coefficient is calculated for both sodium and lead/bismuth. This is attributed to the high fraction of americium in the fuel. It is shown that the lead/bismuth-cooled reactor features twice the grace time with respect to fuel or cladding damage compared to the sodium-cooled reactor of comparable core size and power rating. This accounts to the difference in void reactivity contribution and to the low boiling point of sodium. For improved safety features the general objective is to reduce the coolant void reactivity effect. An important safety issue is the high void worth that could possibly drive the system to prompt criticality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. 227-236 p.
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4983ISI: 000184283600019ISBN: 92-64-10211-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4983DiVA: diva2:7339
Conference
3rd Workshop on Utilisation and Reliability of High Power Proton Accelerators
Note
QC 20101011 NR 20140805Available from: 2005-03-07 Created: 2005-03-07 Last updated: 2012-01-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Accelerator-driven systems: safety and kinetics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerator-driven systems: safety and kinetics
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The accelerator-driven system (ADS) is recognized as a promising system for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation and minimization of spent fuel radiotoxicity. The primary cause for this derives from its accelerator-driven, sub-critical operating state, which introduces beneficial safety-related features allowing for application of cores employing fuel systems containing pure transuranics or minor actinides, thereby offering increased incineration rate of waste products and minimal deployment of advanced (and expensive) partitioning and transmutation technologies. The main theme of the thesis is safety and kinetics performance of accelerator-driven nuclear reactors. The studies are confined to the examination of ADS design proposals employing fast neutron spectrum, uranium-free lattice fuels, and liquid-metal cooling, with emphasis on lead-bismuth coolant. The thesis consists of computational studies under normal operation and hypothetical accidents, and of evaluation and identification of safety design features.

By itself, subcritical operation provides a distinct safety advantage over critical reactor operation, distinguished by high operational stability and additional margins for positive reactivity insertion. For a uranium-free minor actinide based fuel important safety parameters deteriorate. Specific analyses suggest that operation of such cores in a critical state would be very difficult. The studies of unprotected transients indicate that lead-bismuth cooled accelerator-driven reactors can be effective in addressing the low effective delayed neutron fraction and the high coolant void reactivity that comes with the minor actinide fuel, but some supportive prompt negative feedback mechanism might be considered necessary to compensate for a weak Doppler effect in case of a prompt critical transient. Although lead-bismuth features a high boiling point, the work underlines the importance of maintaining a low coolant void reactivity value. The transient design studies identified a molybdenum-based Ceramic-Metal (CerMet) fuel with favourable inherent safety features. A higher lattice pitch is suggested to avoid mechanical failure during unprotected loss-of-flow. Detailed coupled neutron kinetics and thermal hydraulic analyses demonstrated that the point kinetics approximation is capable of providing highly accurate transient calculations of subcritical systems. The results suggest better precision at lower keff levels, which is an effect of the reduced sensitivity to system reactivity perturbations in a subcritical state resulting in small spatial distortions. In the course of a beam reliability study, the accelerator was identified as responsible for frequent beam interruptions. It is clear that extensive improvement in the mean-time between beam failures is required.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. 73 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2005:13
Keyword
Nuclear physics, Kärnfysik
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-146 (URN)91-7283-988-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-03-18, Sal FA32, AlbaNova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101011Available from: 2005-03-07 Created: 2005-03-07 Last updated: 2010-10-11Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Authority records BETA

Wallenius, Janne

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Eriksson, MarcusWallenius, JanneTucek, KamilGudowski, Waclaw
By organisation
PhysicsReactor Physics
Subatomic Physics

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 38 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf