Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
On-Board Hydrogen Storage for Fuel Cell Vehicle
KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology. (Tillämpad elektrokemi, Applied Electrochemistry)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology. (Energiprocesser, Energy Processes)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology. (Energiprocesser, Energy Processes)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0635-7372
2001 (English)In: Proceedings of the 36th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference: Savannah, GA: 29 July 2001 through 2 August 2001, 2001, 581-588 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Methods for onboard storage of hydrogen were evaluated for use in a fuel cell vehicle. Compressed hydrogen gas and cryogenic liquid hydrogen seem to be the two most viable options. Both these storage options were modelled, for storage of 5 kg hydrogen, to be implemented in an automotive fuel cell system simulation model. Hydrogen discharge was simulated for different values of cell stack operating pressure and temperature, using a constant rate of hydrogen release, and the power requirement for heating of the hydrogen to fuel cell stack operating temperature was calculated. The calculations show that compressed gaseous hydrogen storage requires a heating capacity of 0.72 - 1 kW for stack operating temperatures of 343-368 K. In the case of liquid hydrogen storage, heating demand for vaporisation and heating of the fuel was calculated to between 10 and 13 kW for stack operating temperatures of 343-368 K. The fuel cell stack produces surplus heat that can be used for fuel heating. Calculations show that the heat content of the cooling medium is sufficient to heat the fuel stream to approximately 20 K below stack temperature, with temperature differences in heat exchangers being the limiting factor. The radiator/compartment heating and humidifier will also extract heat from the cooling medium. However, to reach system temperature an auxiliary heat source will be required. This could be in the form of an electrical heater or a hydrogen burner. Also, for liquid hydrogen storage, a power demand arises for maintaining operating pressure inside the storage vessel during hydrogen release. This was calculated to between 13 and 28 W for the fuel cell stack operating conditions simulated, and this power demand can be supplied by directing a stream of released and heated hydrogen through a coil running inside the storage vessel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. 581-588 p.
Series
Proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, ISSN 0146-955X
Keyword [en]
Automotive fuels, Compressibility of gases, Computer simulation, Fuel storage, Heat exchangers, Radiators, Vaporization, Fuel cell vehicles, Hydrogen storage
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4987OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4987DiVA: diva2:7354
Conference
36th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC)
Note
QC 20101019 NR 20140805Available from: 2005-03-07 Created: 2005-03-07 Last updated: 2012-02-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles: modelling and demonstration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles: modelling and demonstration
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, direct hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems in vehicles are investigated through modelling, field tests and public acceptance surveys.

A computer model of a 50 kW PEM fuel cell system was developed. The fuel cell system efficiency is approximately 50% between 10 and 45% of the rated power. The fuel cell auxiliary system, e.g. compressor and pumps, was shown to clearly affect the overall fuel cell system electrical efficiency. Two hydrogen on-board storage options, compressed and cryogenic hydrogen, were modelled for the above-mentioned system. Results show that the release of compressed gaseous hydrogen needs approximately 1 kW of heat, which can be managed internally with heat from the fuel cell stack. In the case of cryogenic hydrogen, the estimated heat demand of 13 kW requires an extra heat source.

A phase change based (PCM) thermal management solution to keep a 50 kW PEM fuel cell stack warm during dormancy in a cold climate (-20 °C) was investigated through simulation and experiments. It was shown that a combination of PCM (salt hydrate or paraffin wax) and vacuum insulation materials was able to keep a fuel cell stack from freezing for about three days. This is a simple and potentially inexpensive solution, although development on issues such as weight, volume and encapsulation materials is needed

Two different vehicle platforms, fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles, were used to study the fuel consumption and the air, water and heat management of the fuel cell system under varying operating conditions, e.g. duty cycles and ambient conditions. For a compact vehicle, with a 50 kW fuel cell system, the fuel consumption was significantly reduced, ~ 50 %, compared to a gasoline-fuelled vehicle of similar size. A bus with 200 kW fuel cell system was studied and compared to a diesel bus of comparable size. The fuel consumption of the fuel cell bus displayed a reduction of 33-37 %. The performance of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle, i.e. a 50 kW fuel cell system and a 12 Ah power-assist battery pack in series configuration, was studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10-19 % when the altitude increases from 0 to 3000 m. As expected, the air compressor with its load-following strategy was found to be the main parasitic power (~ 40 % of the fuel cell system net power output at the altitude of 3000 m). Ambient air temperature and relative humidity affect mostly the fuel cell system heat management but also its water balance. In designing the system, factors such as control strategy, duty cycles and ambient conditions need to taken into account.

An evaluation of the performance and maintenance of three fuel cell buses in operation in Stockholm in the demonstration project Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) was performed. The availability of the buses was high, over 85 % during the summer months and even higher availability during the fall of 2004. Cold climate-caused failures, totalling 9 % of all fuel cell propulsion system failures, did not involve the fuel cell stacks but the auxiliary system. The fuel consumption was however rather high at 7.5 L diesel equivalents/10km (per July 2004). This is thought to be, to some extent, due to the robust but not energy-optimized powertrain of the buses. Hybridization in future design may have beneficial effects on the fuel consumption.

Surveys towards hydrogen and fuel cell technology of more than 500 fuel cell bus passengers on route 66 and 23 fuel cell bus drivers in Stockholm were performed. The passengers were in general positive towards fuel cell buses and felt safe with the technology. Newspapers and bus stops were the main sources of information on the fuel cell bus project, but more information was wanted. Safety, punctuality and frequency were rated as the most important factors in the choice of public transportation means. The environment was also rated as an important factor. More than half of the bus passengers were nevertheless unwilling to pay a higher fee for introducing more fuel cell buses in Stockholm’s public transportation. The drivers were positive to the fuel cell bus project, stating that the fuel cell buses were better than diesel buses with respect to pollutant emissions from the exhausts, smell and general passenger comfort. Also, driving experience, acceleration and general comfort for the driver were reported to be better than or similar to those of a conventional bus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. viii, 96 p.
Series
Trita-KET, ISSN 1104-3466 ; 208
Keyword
Chemical engineering, direct hydrogen, Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, fuel cell, fuel cell vehicle, fuel cell hybrid vehicles, on-board hydrogen storage, Kemiteknik
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-147 (URN)91-7283-978-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-03-18, Kollegiesalen, Valhallavägen 79, Stockholm, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101020Available from: 2005-03-07 Created: 2005-03-07 Last updated: 2010-10-20Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Authority records BETA

Alvfors, Per

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Vernersson, ThomasJohansson, KristinaAlvfors, Per
By organisation
Chemical Engineering and TechnologyChemical Engineering and Technology
Chemical Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 259 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf