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Economic and operational factors in energy and climate indicators for the steel industry
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3618-1259
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7123-1824
SSAB EMEA AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandvik AB, Sandviken, Stockholm.
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2015 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

European steel producers need to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions to meet requirements set by European policies. Robust indicators are needed to follow up these efforts. This bottom-up analysis of traditional energy and climate indicators is based on plant level data from three Swedish steel producers with different product portfolios and production processes. It concludes that indicators based on both physical and economic production are interlinked with aspects both within and outside the company gates. Results estimated with Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) confirm that steel production has complex relationships with markets, societal context and operational character of the industry. The study concludes that: (i) physical indicators (based on crude steel production) may be useful at the process level, but not at the industry-wide level, (ii) the value added is not a reliable alternative since it cannot be properly estimated for companies belonging to larger international groups, and (iii) structural shifts may influence the results significantly, and veil improvements made at the process level. Finally, harmonized system boundary definitions are vital for making indicators comparable between companies. The use of traditional indicators, as defined today, may lead to uninformed decisions at the company as well as policy levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 8, no 3
Keyword [en]
specific energy consumption, CO2 emissions, physical and economic indicators, industrial evaluation, iron and steel industry
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-148579DOI: 10.1007/s12053-014-9296-0ISI: 000353824300004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84907653015OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-148579DiVA: diva2:736712
Note

Updated from from submitted to published.

QC 20150521

Available from: 2014-08-08 Created: 2014-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Tools for Evaluating Energy Efficiency of Steel Production: Lessons from Sweden and Europe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tools for Evaluating Energy Efficiency of Steel Production: Lessons from Sweden and Europe
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The European Union faces challenges related to climate change, security of energy supply, and competitiveness of European industries. Energy efficiency indicators are required for monitoring and controlling the effectiveness of policies such as the recently endorsed Energy Efficiency Directive. This thesis aims at assessing whether traditionally used energy efficiency indicators capture the development of energy efficiency in the iron and steel sector. The study is based on results from two statistical methods: a top-down, i.e. Malmquist productivity index, and a bottom-up, i.e. partial least squares regression.

The specific energy consumption (the indicator representing the sector within the Odyssee energy efficiency index) was scrutinised together with associated indicators based on economic production using the aforementioned statistical methods. The results demonstrated the specific energy consumption does not capture the characteristics of the value chain of steel products. Therefore, it is not sufficient for capturing the energy efficiency of iron and steel industries. Previous studies suggest using indicators based on economic production (e.g. value added) since they represent the value chain to larger degree. However, the value creation process of companies belonging to larger international groups cannot be estimated reliably. Furthermore, the trends of both types of indicators tend to be highly influenced by structural changes, veiling the actual efficiency development.

Energy use statistics published by international organisations were also compared for the Swedish case. The results demonstrated that international organisations use different methodologies for allocating energy use statistics between consumption and transformation sectors. The method has significant implications on the trends observed, if based on openly available statistics.

This thesis complements previous research by reviewing implications of traditional energy efficiency indicators based on company data, national statistics or openly available statistics and contributes with insights essential for future efforts towards improving energy efficiency indicators for the steel industry.

Abstract [sv]

Den europeiska unionen står inför utmaningar relaterade till minskad klimatpåverkan, säkerställd energitillgång samt konkurrenskraften hos europeisk industri. Energieffektiviseringsindikatorer krävs för att övervaka och kontrollera effektiviteten hos energipolicy såsom det nyligen antagna energieffektiviseringsdirektivet. Den här avhandlingen syftar till att bedöma om traditionellt använda energieffektiviserings-indikatorer fångar järn- och stålsektorns utveckling inom energi-effektivitet. Studien är baserad på resultat från två statistiska metoder: en top-down-metod, Malmquists produktivitetsindex, och en bottom-up-metod, partiella minsta kvadratmetoden.

Den specifika energikonsumtionen – indikatorn som representerar sektorn i Odyssees energieffektiviseringsindex – granskades tillsammans med andra energieffektivitetsindikatorer med hjälp av de ovan nämnda statistiska metoderna. Resultaten visade att specifik energikonsumtion inte fångar karaktären av stålprodukternas värdekedjor. Indikatorn är därför inte tillräcklig för att fånga energieffektivitet inom järn- och stål-industrier. Tidigare studier föreslår att använda indikatorer baserade på ekonomisk produktion (exempelvis förädlingsvärdet) då de representerar värdekedjan till högre grad. Förädlingsvärdet kan dock inte uppskattas tillförlitligt för företag som tillhör större internationella grupper. Trend-erna hos båda typerna av indikatorer tenderar dessutom att påverkas av strukturella förändringar, vilka döljer den riktiga effektivitetsutvecklingen.

En jämförelse gjordes även av energianvändningsstatistik publicerad av olika internationella organisationer för det svenska fallet. Resultaten demonstrerade att internationella organisationer använder olika metoder för att allokera energianvändning mellan konsumtions- och omvandlings-sektorer i statistiken. Metoden påverkar observerade trender signifikant om de baseras på öppet tillgänglig statistik.

Avhandlingen kompletterar tidigare forskning genom att belysa innebörden av traditionella energieffektiviseringsindikatorer baserade på företagsdata, nationell statistik eller öppet tillgänglig statistik samt bidrar med insikter som kommer att vara väsentliga för framtida satsningar i att förbättra energieffektiviseringsindikatorer för stålindustrin. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. 50 p.
Series
TRITA-ECS, 14/03
Keyword
energy efficiency, indicators, iron and steel sector, systems analysis, energieffektivitet, indikatorer, järn- och stålsektorn, systemanalys
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-149348 (URN)978-91-7595-230-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-09-19, Learning Theatre (M235), Brinellvägen 68, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-08-28 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2014-08-28Bibliographically approved
2. Tracking Emissions Reductions and Energy Efficiency in the Steel Industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracking Emissions Reductions and Energy Efficiency in the Steel Industry
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The iron and steel industry has become increasingly globalised. Market conditions are also changing and de-carbonisation of production is challenging.

The objective of this thesis is to assess how energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reductions can be promoted and effectively monitored in the steel industry. The thesis contributes with analyses based on the Malmquist Productivity Index for a top-down analysis of the energy efficiency of EU Member States’ iron and steel production, and Partial Least Squares regression for bottom-up assessments of different monitoring tools. The thesis also contributes with a scrap availability assessment module to enhance the energy system model ETSAP-TIAM.

The first phase of the research showed that future production needs to shift towards innovative low-CO2 technologies even when all available recycled material is fully used. Techniques using carbon capture and storage (CCS) as well as hydrogen-based technologies can be expected to become economically viable under tightened climate policies.

The second phase of the research showed that current indicators are insufficient. System boundaries of energy use and emissions data do not align with production statistics. Indicators based on energy use or emissions in relation to production in physical terms may be useful to track specific processes. However, current indicators fail to reflect the companies’ product mix. Enhanced energy and climate indicators that adjust for the product mix provide better estimates while failing to reflect the increasing globalisation.

Effective monitoring of industrial transformation will be increasingly important as pressure from climate policy via global CO2-pricing is unlikely in the short term. Current or enhanced indicators do not fully capture industrial transformation and are not recommended. Future research should focus on defining indicators to estimate energy use and emissions along industrial value chains in climate policy contexts.

Abstract [sv]

Järn- och stålindustrin har blivit alltmer globaliserad. Marknadsvillkoren förändras samtidigt som utfasningen av fossila bränslen är utmanande.

Målet med den här avhandlingen är att bedöma hur energieffektivitet och växthusgasutsläppsminskningar kan främjas och effektivt utvärderas inom stålindustrin. Avhandlingen bidrar med analyser baserade Malmquists produktivitetsindex för att analysera energieffektivitet av EU:s medlemsstaters järn- och stålproduktion, och partiell minsta- kvadrat-regression för att bedöma olika utvärderingsmått. Avhandlingen bidrar även med en modul som bedömer skrottillgång för att förbättra energisystemmodellen ETSAP-TIAM.

I en första fas visade forskningen att framtida produktion behöver ställas om mot innovativa teknologier med låga CO2-utsläpp även när allt tillgängligt återvunnet material används fullt ut. Tekniker som använder koldioxidinfångning och -lagring (CCS) samt vätebaserade teknologier kan förväntas bli ekonomiskt försvarbara under åtstramade klimatpolitiska styrmedel.

I en andra fas visade forskningen att nuvarande indikatorer är otillräckliga. Systemgränser för energianvändnings- och växthusgasutsläppsdata stämmer inte överens med produktionsstatistik. Indikatorer utifrån energianvändning eller utsläpp i relation till fysisk produktion kan vara användbara för att följa upp specifika processer. Nuvarande indikatorer lyckas dock inte spegla företagens produktmix. Förbättrade energi- och klimatindikatorer som justerar för produktmixen ger bättre uppskattningar, men speglar inte branschens ökande globalisering.

Effektiv utvärdering av industriell transformation blir alltmer viktig då påtryckning från klimatpolitiska styrmedel via global CO2-prissättning är kortsiktigt osannolik. Nuvarande eller förbättrade indikatorer fångar inte industriell transformation fullt ut och rekommenderas inte. Framtida forskning bör fokusera på att definiera indikatorer som uppskattar energianvändning och växthusgasutsläpp längs industriella värdekedjor. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 98 p.
Series
TRITA-ECS Report, 17/01
Keyword
energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, indicators, iron and steel industry, systems analysis, energieffektivitet, växthusgasutsläppsminskning, indikatorer, järn- och stålbranschen, systemanalys
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205882 (URN)978-91-7729-382-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-02, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170428

Available from: 2017-04-28 Created: 2017-04-28 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved

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