Plasma assisted technology for Si-based photonic integrated circuits
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The last two decades have witnessed a large increase in capacity in telecommunication systems, thanks to the development of high bandwidth, fiber optic based networks. Nevertheless the continuing growth of Internet data traffic, fuelled by the development of numerous services like on-line commerce, video on demand, large audio/video files downloads, demands for a significant increase in the ability of the network nodes to manage incoming and outcoming data streams effectively and fast. The different functionalities that are needed include add/drop channel multiplexing, routing, signal reshaping and retiming, electrical/optical and optical/electrical conversion. This has stimulated a large effort towards the investigation of technologies for opto-electronic integration at a wafer level, in order to cope with all the required operations, while limiting overall costs. Among the different approaches proposed, one of the most promising is the “Silicon optical bench”, which relies on the well established VLSI technology for the microelectronics part and on planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) made either with silica-on-silicon waveguide technology (low index contrast) of amorphous silicon technology (high index contrast) on the integrated optics side.
This thesis presents the development of new techniques and methodologies utilized in photonic device fabrication, which can be used to facilitate integration of temperature sensitive elements. The process is based on low temperature, plasma assisted, thick film deposition. First, a low temperature (300°C) deposition process based on Plasma assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (PACVD) for the fabrication of silica based Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLC) is developed. The low thermal budget lends itself to monolithic integration with devices fabricated with different technologies. Absorption bands at around the wavelengths 1.48µm and 1.51µm caused by N-H and Si-H bonds within the material, respectively, had previously been thought to be intrinsic to the PACVD deposition method, when using N2O as oxidant gas of SiH4 and the other dopant precursors. The traditional method to eliminate these absorption bands was high temperature (>1000°C) annealing that seriously hinders device integration. An important achievement in this thesis is the improved suppression of these two absorption bands while keeping the whole fabrication temperature below 300°C and also having a high deposition rate. A complete fabrication process for silica planar lightwave circuits was also developed, by optimising the photolithography and etching step. Finally the effect of dopants like Ge and B on the optical properties of the deposited silica glass was investigated, with particular emphasis to the photosensitive properties of the material upon illumination in the near UV. UV trimming is shown to be a versatile method to selectively control polarization birefringence of devices. Transmission dips of above 50dB were achieved in photo-induced gratings in low temperature deposited B-Ge codoped waveguide cores, without the need for hydrogen loading or other sensitisation techniques. The application of a high refractive index like amorphous silicon is addressed for the realization of efficient Bragg reflectors, either as vertical cavity laser mirrors or as dispersive element for planar waveguides used in highly selective co-directional coupler filters. Applications of amorphous silicon as core material for photonic crystal devices are also shown. The investigations carried out in this thesis show that PACVD technology can provide low-loss and UV sensitive material suitable for realizing a variety of low cost integrated devices for future all optical networks.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , 34 p.
Trita-MVT, ISSN 0348-4467 ; 2005:2
Electrical engineering, silica-on-silicon technology, PACVD, plasma deposition, photonic integrated circuits, planar lightwave circuits
Elektroteknik, elektronik och fotonik
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-148OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-148DiVA: diva2:7379
2005-03-21, Sal C1, KTH-Electrum, Isafjordsgatan 22, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Driessen, Alfred, Prof
QC 201010042005-03-102005-03-102010-10-04Bibliographically approved
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