Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Towards a systematic approach for technology assessment by combining material flow analysis, life cycle assessment and life cycle costing
KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
2002 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kemiteknik , 2002. , ix, 54 p.
Series
Trita-KET-IM, 2002:25
Keyword [en]
technology assessment, material flow analysis, substance flow analysis, life cycle assessment, life cycle costing
National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-1512ISBN: 91-631-3448-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-1512DiVA: diva2:7415
Presentation
(English)
Note
20100506Available from: 2003-02-13 Created: 2003-02-13 Last updated: 2010-08-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. ORWARE: an aid to Environmental Technology Chain Assessment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ORWARE: an aid to Environmental Technology Chain Assessment
2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 13, no 3, 265-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article discusses the ORWARE tool, a model originally developed for environmental systems analysis of waste management systems, and shows its prospect as a tool for environmental technology chain assessment. Different concepts of technology assessment are presented to put ORWARE into context in the discussion that has been going for more than two decades since the establishment of the US Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). An even-handed assessment is important in different ways such as reproducibility, reliability, credibility, etc. Conventional technology assessment (TA) relied on the judgements and intuition of the assessors. A computer-based tool such as ORWARE provides a basis for transparency and a structured management of input and output data that cover ecological and economic parameters. This permits consistent and coherent technology assessments. Using quantitative analysis as in ORWARE makes comparison and addition of values across chain of technologies easier. We illustrate the application of the model in environmental technology chain assessment through a study of alternative technical systems linking waste management to vehicle fuel production and use. The principles of material and substance flow modelling, life cycle perspective, and graphical modelling featured in ORWARE offer a generic structure for environmentally focused TA of chains and networks of technical processes.

Keyword
Material flow analysis; Substance flow analysis; Life cycle assessment; Technology assessment; Waste management
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8914 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.02.019 (DOI)000225529700006 ()2-s2.0-8344290442 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100505Available from: 2005-12-13 Created: 2005-12-13 Last updated: 2011-11-08Bibliographically approved
2. Technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies using ORWARE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies using ORWARE
2005 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, Vol. 46, no 5, 797-819 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies for wastes was performed in the form of scenarios of chains of technologies. The Swedish assessment tool, ORWARE, was used for the assessment. The scenarios of chains of thermal technologies assessed were gasification with catalytic combustion, gasification with flame combustion, incineration and landfilling. The landfilling scenario was used as a reference for comparison. The technologies were assessed from ecological and economic points of view.

The results are presented in terms of global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, consumption of primary energy carriers and welfare costs. From the simulations, gasification followed by catalytic combustion with energy recovery in a combined cycle appeared to be the most competitive technology from an ecological point of view. On the other hand, this alternative was more expensive than incineration. A sensitivity analysis was done regarding electricity prices to show which technology wins at what value of the unit price of electricity (SEK/kW h).

Within this study, it was possible to make a comparison both between a combined cycle and a Rankine cycle (a system pair) and at the same time between flame combustion and catalytic combustion (a technology pair). To use gasification just as a treatment technology is not more appealing than incineration, but the possibility of combining gasification with a combined cycle is attractive in terms of electricity production.

This research was done in connection with an empirical R&D work on both gasification of waste and catalytic combustion of the gasified waste at the Division of Chemical Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.

Keyword
Technology assessment; Material flow analysis; Substance flow analysis; Life cycle assessment; Life cycle costing; Thermal technologies; ORWARE
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8915 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2004.04.011 (DOI)000226448400011 ()2-s2.0-10444281767 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100505Available from: 2005-12-13 Created: 2005-12-13 Last updated: 2011-11-08Bibliographically approved
3. Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective
Show others...
2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 13, no 3, 241-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different waste treatment options for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of biodegradable waste, were studied and compared to landfilling. The evaluation covered use of energy resources, environmental impact and financial and environmental costs. In the study, a calculation model ( ) based on methodology from life cycle assessment (LCA) was used. Case studies were performed in three Swedish municipalities: Uppsala, Stockholm, and Älvdalen.

The study shows that reduced landfilling in favour of increased recycling of energy and materials lead to lower environmental impact, lower consumption of energy resources, and lower economic costs. Landfilling of energy-rich waste should be avoided as far as possible, partly because of the negative environmental impacts from landfilling, but mainly because of the low recovery of resources when landfilling.

Differences between materials recycling, nutrient recycling and incineration are small but in general recycling of plastic is somewhat better than incineration and biological treatment somewhat worse.

When planning waste management, it is important to know that the choice of waste treatment method affects processes outside the waste management system, such as generation of district heating, electricity, vehicle fuel, plastic, cardboard, and fertiliser.

Keyword
LCA; LCC; Environmental systems analysis; Waste management; Recycling; Simulation model; Image ; Scenarios; Case study
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8913 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.02.018 (DOI)000225529700004 ()2-s2.0-8344270205 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100505Available from: 2005-12-13 Created: 2005-12-13 Last updated: 2011-11-08Bibliographically approved
4. ORWARE: a simulation tool for waste management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ORWARE: a simulation tool for waste management
Show others...
2002 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 36, no 4, 287-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) is described. The model is mainly used as a tool for researchers in environmental systems analysis of waste management. It is a computer-based model for calculation of substance flows, environmental impacts, and costs of waste management. The model covers, despite the name, both organic and inorganic fractions in municipal waste. The model consists of a number of separate submodels, which describes a process in a real waste management system. The submodels may be combined to design a complete waste management system. Based on principles from life cycle assessment the model also comprises compensatory processes for conventional production of e.g. electricity, district heating and fertiliser. The compensatory system is included in order to fulfil the functional units, i.e. benefits from the waste management that are kept constant in the evaluation of different scenarios. ORWARE generates data on emissions, which are aggregated into different environmental impact categories, e.g. the greenhouse effect, acidification and eutrophication. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of up to 50 substances. The extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. Scientists have used ORWARE for 8 years in different case studies for model testing and practical application in the society. The aims have e.g. been to evaluate waste management plans and to optimise energy recovery from waste.

Keyword
Waste management; Material flow analysis; Systems analysis; Life cycle assessment; Simulation model; ORWARE
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8912 (URN)10.1016/S0921-3449(02)00031-9 (DOI)000178793600001 ()
Note
QC 20100505Available from: 2005-12-13 Created: 2005-12-13 Last updated: 2011-11-08Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Assefa, Getachew
By organisation
Infrastructure
Natural SciencesEngineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 366 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf