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Exploring Opportunistic Use of Mobile Devices for Studying in Higher Education
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6457-5231
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Students today often feel that they have too much to do and too little time. A common strategy to remedy this is to take advantage of opportunities to use “inter-time”, the time between other activities such as waiting or traveling. The aim of this thesis is to explore how studying using mobile devices in higher education can be designed for such opportunities. I choose to call this Opportunistic Mobile Studying (OMS).

Using a design-based research approach this thesis discusses and proposes both scientific and practical contributions. A number of iterations of OMS have been designed, instantiated and tested in university courses and then evaluated using mixed methods.

The first research question is how can OMS be designed to support students in adopting the behavior of studying at opportune moments. The results have been framed and interpreted using the Fogg Behavior Model, where behavior is the product of motivation, simplicity, and triggers. The results suggest that a key factor for motivation is procrastination, and therefore deadlines can be used to predict and suggest what students would likely be interested in studying during OMS moments. Simplicity is increased if OMS is adapted for studying in short fragmented moments, where important aspects are that content should be short, easy to access and easy to navigate. Trigger reminders were particularly appreciated and should be triggered based on time and place. Commuting is identified as a good context to build a routine of studying using OMS.

The second research question is how can OMS activities and content be designed to support efficient studying in OMS situations. Study- activities identified as especially suitable for OMS situations are those that focus on preparation and repetition. These activities can enhance other learning activities and efficient studying can be accomplished even if only a little time is available. Examples of successful methods for this tested in this thesis include advance organizers and flashcards. Longer and more comprehensive studying material can be used if quick and easy navigation within the material is provided, for example, by using synchronized narrated slides such as enhanced podcasts. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , 90 p.
Series
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 14:12
Keyword [en]
mobile learning, e-learning, mobility, atudying, higher education
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Media Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-150389ISBN: 978-91-7595-247-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-150389DiVA: diva2:742758
Public defence
2014-09-23, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 14:38 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140902

Available from: 2014-09-02 Created: 2014-09-02 Last updated: 2014-09-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Mobile Message Services Using Text, Audio or Video for Improving the Learning Infrastructure in Higher Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile Message Services Using Text, Audio or Video for Improving the Learning Infrastructure in Higher Education
2006 (English)In: International Journal:  Emerging Technologies in Learning, ISSN 1868-8799, E-ISSN 1863-0383, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines how media files sent to mobile phones can be used to improve education at universities, and describes a prototype implement of such a system using standard components. To accomplish this, university students were equipped with mobile phones and software that allowed teachers to send text-based, audio-based and video-based messages to the students. Data was collected using questionnaires, focus groups and log files. The conclusions were that students preferred to have information and learning content sent as text, rather than audio or video. Text messages sent to phones should be no longer than 2000 characters. The most appreciated services were notifications of changes in course schedules, short lecture introductions and reminders. The prototype showed that this functionality is easy to implement using standard components.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association of Online Engineering, 2006
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-60468 (URN)
Note

QC 20120118

Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2012-01-13 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. A Comparison of Presentation Methods for Reading on Mobile Phones
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparison of Presentation Methods for Reading on Mobile Phones
2007 (English)In: IEEE Distributed Systems Online, ISSN 1541-4922, E-ISSN 1541-4922, Vol. 8, no 6, 0706- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A study was conducted to compare traditional scroll-based methods for reading text-based content on mobile phones, with Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP), a method that displays words sequentially. The RSVP text-reading method presents one word or a few words at a rapid sequence, without using page or scroll-based layouts, such as books or Web pages. It was found that reading speed and comprehension level on small screen displays, such as mobile phones equaled speed and comprehension level of reading books, using the RSVP text-reading method. It was also found that the RSVPM method can be a better platform for text-based mobile-learning, when readability, comprehensibility, and preference rating are sufficient. It was also observed that the use of the RSVP text-reading method eliminates the need for eye movements between fixations that resulted in increasing reading speed of text from mobile phones.

Keyword
Eye movements, Mobile phones, Technical presentations, Three dimensional computer graphics
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-60003 (URN)10.1109/MDSO.2007.34 (DOI)2-s2.0-34548264626 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120113

Available from: 2012-01-12 Created: 2012-01-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Mobile Lecture Casting using Enhanced Podcasts and 3gp Videos
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile Lecture Casting using Enhanced Podcasts and 3gp Videos
2007 (English)In: Mobile Lecture Casting using Enhanced Podcasts and 3gp Videos, Kassel University Press GmbH, 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kassel University Press GmbH, 2007
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-60612 (URN)978-3-89958-279-6 (ISBN)
Conference
Mobile Lecture Casting using Enhanced Podcasts and 3gp Videos
Note

QC 20120118

Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2012-01-13 Last updated: 2015-12-16Bibliographically approved
4. Mobile Location-based Learning Reminders using GSM cell Identification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile Location-based Learning Reminders using GSM cell Identification
2009 (English)In: IADIS International Journal on WWW/Internet, ISSN 1645-7641, Vol. 7, no 1, 166-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Location-based services are rapidly becoming accessible to a wide audience using the GPS available in many mobile phones. However, an even wider audience can be reached using positioning based on the GSM cell, a technique which is available on many more phones, and which is a solution that also works indoors and underground which is not the case for GPS receivers. Additionally, battery consumption is much lower using such positioning methods. In this paper, we describe a study in which a location-based reminder system, based on GSM cell identification, has been developed for mobile learning in chemistry. The results indicate that such location-based reminders are useful for detecting m-learning opportunities, and that the respondents saw these opportunities as bonus studying time, when they would not have done anything else anyway. Most respondents were also more positive about studying chemistry on their mobile phones after the study than before the study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IADIS Press, 2009
Keyword
Location-Based Services, Location-Based Reminders, M-Learning, Context Awareness
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-59999 (URN)
Note

QC 20120118

Available from: 2012-01-12 Created: 2012-01-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Teaching Procrastination - A Way of Helping Students to Improve their Study Habits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teaching Procrastination - A Way of Helping Students to Improve their Study Habits
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Procrastination, or to against better judgment postpone a task, is a very common problem in general, and for university students in particular where about 50% procrastinate consistently and problematically. In learning contexts, procrastination leads to cramming strategies, where the major part of studying activities occurs close to the exam instead of spreading the learning over time, which generally is believed to give better learning.

This paper describes a course module on procrastination and the preliminary results from running the module with about 230 students in media technology.

Keyword
procrastination, behavior change
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100824 (URN)
Conference
LTHs 7:e Pedagogiska Inspirationskonferens
Note
QC 20120820Available from: 2012-08-20 Created: 2012-08-17 Last updated: 2014-09-03Bibliographically approved
6. Nu ska jag plugga! Jag ska bara färgsortera mina böcker först
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nu ska jag plugga! Jag ska bara färgsortera mina böcker först
2013 (Swedish)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Prokrastinering, eller att mot bättre vetande skjuta upp något, är ett stort problem i samhället i allmänhet och för studenter i synnerhet. I denna artikel beskriver vi en utbildningsmodul om prokrastinering som vi introducerat på två civilingenjörsprogram på KTH, varav denna rapport behandlar datateknikprogrammet där 466 studenter deltog. Utvärderingen hade 100% svarsfrekvens, och visar att 95% av studenterna hade problem med prokrastinering varav 43% hade stora eller mycket stora problem. 88% ansåg att prokrastinering var ett bra tema att ha med i utbildningen, och 57% ansåg att momentet haft positiva effekter på deras studievanor. Endast 7% ansåg att momentet inte hade gett några märkbara effekter på studierna. Då modulen endast kräver ca 8 timmars arbete från studenternas sida anser vi att fördelarna är så stora att denna eller en liknande modul borde ingå i samtliga utbildningsprogram.

Keyword
Higher Education, Procrastination, Reflection, Study Habits
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131445 (URN)
Conference
4:e Utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, Tekniska Högskolan vid Umeå universitet, 27 november – 28 november 2013
Note

QC 20131216

Available from: 2013-10-15 Created: 2013-10-15 Last updated: 2014-09-02Bibliographically approved

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