Fans are often used in equipment such as home appliances andelectronic equipment where the margin of profit is small butcustomers demands on a low noise level are high. Therefore,methods for predicting the noise emitted by an applicationincluding one or several fans are desirable in order toimprove, accelerate and reduce the cost of low-noise design.The Noise Shaping Technology (NST) has been developed withinthe EC-project NABUCCO in order to fulfil the aboverequirements on a prediction method. According to NST, thenoise source (not necessary a fan) is described by one orseveral noise descriptors, CSSs, and the correspondingtransmission paths through the structure described by one orseveral transfer functions, ACFs. In this thesis, theapplicability of NST is evaluated on a cabinet for electronicequipment where small axial cooling fans constitute the primarysources of the airborne sound.
As an axial fan is a complex source of sound,simplifications are necessary when modelling its acousticproperties. Therefore, the sound radiation of an axial fan infree space was examined by expanding the generated soundpressure field into spherical harmonics. The conclusion on asource model for the cabinet example, where the fans are moreor less In-duct mounted, is a modified single axial dipole. Themodel is expected to be valid in the entire frequency range ofinterest except in the mid-frequency range where the modaldensity is low. In order to improve the source model in thisfrequency range, a future model based on a rotating dipole isproposed.
The sound power of a small axial fan is measured in an ISO10302 test-rig. In order to take account of flow conditions,acoustically transparent ducts have been developed. These shallbe attached to the test-rig when measuring the sound power ofthe fan. A simple but practical method of how to correct thesound power for the baffling effect of the test-rig has alsobeen developed. Finally, the sound power can be converted intodipole force, which is the airborne CSS corresponding to thesingle axial dipole model.
The corresponding airborne transfer function (ACF), i.e.,from dipole force at the source point to sound pressure at thereceiver point, is measured reciprocally by taking use ofLyamshevs reciprocity relation.
From multiplication of the CSS and the ACF, the soundpressure can be predicted. The prediction shows quite goodagreement with the measured values.
Keywords:axial fan, airborne sound, sourcecharacterisation, transmission path analysis, In-duct,spherical harmonics, rotating dipole, installation effects, ISO10302, flow conditions, baffling effect, acousticallytransparent ducts, Lyamshevs reciprocity relation, reciprocity,CSS, ACF, GSM, NST.
Institutionen för farkostteknik , 2003. , iv, 59 p.
axial fan, airborne sound, source characterisation, transmission path analysis, in-duct. Spherical harmonics