Science, technology, and the niels bohr institute in occupied Denmark
2011 (English)In: Physics in Perspective, ISSN 1422-6944, Vol. 13, no 4, 401-432 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
I argue that research in the basic sciences during the German occupation of Denmark, which began on April 9, 1940, suffered considerably, while research and development in technology enjoyed improved conditions as Danish industry moved toward the requirements of the German wartime economy. Several organizations were created to further Danish- German scientific and cultural collaboration or to manifest Danish cultural identity. The staff of the Danish Technical College and the number of their publications remained largely constant although no papers appeared in British or American journals after 1941. Danish universities massively resisted collaboration and maintained an illusion of "business as usual." At the Niels Bohr Institute, laboratory equipment continued to be constructed and developed and scientists continued to publish in Danish and other Scandinavian journals, although they were increasingly isolated owing to their inability to obtain foreign scientific journals and to correspond with foreign scientists. The Niels Bohr Institute was occupied from December 6, 1943, to February 3, 1944, a surprisingly short period, owing, I argue, to strategic compromises in following incompatible orders from the German army, security police, and civilian administration. Finally, I offer an interpretation of Niels Bohr's vehemently negative reaction to Werner Heisenberg in their meeting in Copenhagen in September 1941.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 13, no 4, 401-432 p.
Academy of technical sciences, Arthur von hippel, Carl friedrich von weizsa&die, Carlsberg foundation, Cker, Danish industry, Danish resistance, Danish royal academy of sciences, Danish science, Danish technical college, Danish-german association, Danish-german collaboration, Fritz houtermans, George de hevesy, German occupation of denmark, German scientific institutes, German wartime economy, Günther pancke, Hans christian ørsted, Hans christian andersen, Heinrich himmler, Heisenberg-bohr meeting, History of physics, Kurt diebner, Léon rsenfeld, Niels bohr, Niels bohr institute, Nikolai f.s. grundtvig, Otto hahn, Otto scheel, Rockefeller foundation, Society for dissemination of natural sciences, The danish association, University of copenhagen, Walther gerlach, Werner best, Werner heisenberg
Natural Sciences History of Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-150663DOI: 10.1007/s00016-011-0059-4ISI: 000300353500003ScopusID: 2-s2.0-81155137972OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-150663DiVA: diva2:745930
QC 201409112014-09-112014-09-082015-10-12Bibliographically approved