Studies of pH-Sensitive Optical Properties of the deGFP1 Green Fluorescent Protein Using a Unique Polarizable Force Field
2014 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, ISSN 1549-9618, E-ISSN 1549-9626, Vol. 10, no 8, 3492-3502 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The aim of this study is to identify the responsible molecular forms for the pH dependent optical properties of the deGFP1 green fluorescent protein mutant. We have carried out static and dynamic type calculations for all four protonation states of the chromophore to unravel the contributions due to finite temperature and the flexible protein backbone on the pH dependent optical properties. In particular, we have used a combined molecular dynamics and density functional molecular mechanics linear response approach by means of which the optical property calculations were carried out for the chromophore in the explicitly treated solvent and bioenvironment. Two different models were used to describe the environment electronic embedding and polarizable electronic embedding accounting for the polarization of the chromophore and the mutual polarization between the chromophore and the environment, respectively. For this purpose a polarizable force field was derived quantum mechanically for the protein environment by use of analytical response theory. While the gas-phase calculations for the chromophore predict that the induced red shift going from low to high pH is attributed to the change of molecular forms from neutral to zwitterionic, the two more advanced models that explicitly account for the protein backbone attribute the pH shift to a neutral to anionic conversion. Some ramifications of the results for the use of GFPs as pH sensors are discussed.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 10, no 8, 3492-3502 p.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-150932DOI: 10.1021/ct5001318ISI: 000340351200059ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84906236526OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-150932DiVA: diva2:746222
QC 201409122014-09-122014-09-112016-05-17Bibliographically approved