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Ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal and nutritious plants used to manage opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda
Makerere Univ, Sch Biosci, Kampala, Uganda.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 155, no 1, 194-202 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the people of Uganda to treat a wide range of health problems. Our study presents results of an ethnobotanical inventory conducted to identify and document medicinal and nutritional plants used in the management of opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), the plant parts used, preparation and administration methods of herbal remedies. Materials and methods: We performed semi-structured interviews with 79 respondents (women 78%, men 22%), who included specialists in medicinal plants (such as traditional birth attendants and herbalists) and non specialists with general knowledge of plant use. Respondents answered a semi-structured questionnaire regarding their knowledge of plants and general treatment practices including management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. The reported plants were collected and identified. Data were analyzed using factor informant consensus and fidelity level to determine homogeneity of informants' knowledge on medicinal and nutritional plants suitable for different ailment categories and the most preferred plant species used to treat each ailment category in the study areas. Results: The study revealed 148 plant species belonging to 54 families, most of which were herbs (50.7%). Leaves (61.6%) were the most frequently used parts in remedy preparations which were mainly administered orally (72%). The majority of plants (62%) were harvested from wild habitats. The most important species according to fidelity values are Hibiscus sabdariffa L for anaemia, Mangifera indica L for cough, Zehneria scabra (L F.) Sond. for skin infections, Rhus natalensis Bernh.ex.Krauss for diarrhoea and Tarenna pavettoides (Harv.) Sim for appetite boosting. The factor informant consensus highlighted the agreement in the use of plants and showed that the respiratory infections category had the greatest agreement (0.60). Family Asteraceae accounted for 15% of the total species recorded. Sixty plant species (40%) of the plants provide nutritional support. Conclusion: The study revealed that folk medicine is still widely practised. Fidelity level values indicate that these plants are the most preferred Species for particular ailments. The high consensus value (0.6) indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants for respiratory ailments among others. These preferred plant species could be prioritized for conservation and subjected to chemical screening to ascertain their pharmacological activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 155, no 1, 194-202 p.
Keyword [en]
Ethnobotanical study, Nutri-medicinal plants, HIV/AIDS, Opportunistic infections, Uganda
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-151341DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.012ISI: 000340854000018Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84904974622OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-151341DiVA: diva2:748378
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Note

QC 20140919

Available from: 2014-09-19 Created: 2014-09-18 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nutri-medicinal plants used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in western Uganda: documentation, phytochemistry and bioactivity evaluation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nutri-medicinal plants used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in western Uganda: documentation, phytochemistry and bioactivity evaluation
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As a result of the AIDS epidemic, many people are immunocompromised and opportunistic infections are common. Medicinal plants constitute one of the fundaments of HIV treatment and are commonly used in management of HIV–related ailments, and also to counteract the side effects of antiretroviral therapy. This study documents and evaluates nutri-medicinal plants traditionally used in the management of opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda. A six-stage process of documentation, evaluation and analysis of results was conducted: (1) ethnobotanical studies leading to identification and documentation of medicinal and nutritional plants most frequently used in the treatment of opportunistic infections of HIV/AIDS  (2) Collection of plant samples and preparation of the extracts of each of the selected plants needed for bioactivity evaluation; (3) Phytochemical analysis of crude plant extracts (qualitative and GC/MS analysis); (4) pharmacological evaluation of the crude plant extracts (antimicrobial, antioxidant and mineral nutrient evaluation); (5) safety evaluation of the active extracts using animal models, and (6) Statistical analysis of the results.

The study recorded 324 plant species distributed in 75 families, with potential to treat ailments associated with immuno-compromised people living with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda. The study revealed that folk medicine is still widely practiced. Fidelity level values indicated the most preferred plant species for particular ailments. The high consensus values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants for various ailments. The selected preferred plant species were subjected to chemical screening to ascertain their pharmacological activities and they could be prioritized for conservation. The study allows for identifying high value medicinal plants indicating high potential for economic development.

Phytochemical screening of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of selected twenty plant species revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, coumarins and steroid glycosides. Some of the major chemical compounds identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry of the essential oils include α- phellandrene, linalool, carvacrol, geraniol, β-eudesmene, β-cubebene, α-caryophyllene, 1-8 cineole and caryophyllene oxide. The essential oils of Plectranthus amboinicus, Erlangea tomentosa, Plunchea ovalis and Crassocephalum vitellinum were highly active against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. One of the essential oil fractions of Crassocephalum vitellinum (1.56 mg/ml) was highly active against Cryptococcus neoformans. Antioxidant activities of the plant species were also tested. The antioxidant activity of Pseudarthria hookeri (43.68%) and the ferric reducing power of Symphytum officinale (10.48 Mm/L) were the highest values. The ability of the plant extracts to scavenge free radicals may partly justify the traditional use of these plants to boost immunity in HIV/AIDS patients. Mineral nutrient analysis revealed high amounts of iron in Plectranthus amboinicus (5.8 mg/kg dry weight), zinc in Pseudarthria hookeri (6.9 mg/kg dry weight) and selenium in Plunchea ovalis (1.14 mg/kg dry weight). These elements are essential in maintenance of the immune system. Hematological analysis of the aqueous extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed that the plant has immunostimulating properties by increasing the number of lymphocytes in the test animals. Further ethnopharmacological studies are needed for the documented plants particularly the most active ones.

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. 71 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2015:34
Keyword
Ethnobotanical study, Medicinal plants, HIV, AIDS, opportunistic infections, bacteria, fungi, GC-MS, phytochemistry, SPME, antioxidant, histopathology, biochemistry, hematology, western Uganda.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173635 (URN)978-91-7595-649-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-07, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Sida Phase III Bilateral program 2010-2015
Funder
Swedish Institute, Sida Phase III Bilateral program 2010-2015
Note

QC 20150916

Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-15 Last updated: 2015-09-16Bibliographically approved

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