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A Simulation Approach to Plasma Waves
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electrostatic waves in the form of Broadband Electrostatic Noise (BEN) have been observed inthe Earth’s auroral region associated with high geomagnetic activity. Their broad frequencyspectrum consists of three electrostatic modes, namely electron plasma, electron acoustic andbeam-driven modes.A 1D Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation was developed to investigate the characteristics ofthe electrostatic waves found in such a plasma. Dispersion, phase space and spatial electricfield diagrams were constructed from the output of the PIC simulation which was used todescribe the wave dispersion and spatial field structures found in a plasma. A three electroncomponent plasma was studied using a Maxwellian distribution function to model their ve-locities. Beam-driven waves were found to dominate the frequency spectrum while electronplasma and electron acoustic waves were damped for a high beam velocity. Furthermore, for ahigh beam velocity, solitary waves are generated by electron holes (positive potentials), givingrise to a bipolar spatial electric field structure moving in the direction of the beam. Increasingthe beam temperature allows the beam electrons to mix more freely with the hot and coolelectrons, which leads to electron plasma and electron acoustic waves being enhanced whilebeam-driven waves are damped. Decreasing the beam density and velocity leads to dampingof beam-driven waves, while electron plasma and electron acoustic waves are enhanced.The electron acoustic mode was studied with the addition of a static background magneticfield. When the angle of wave propagation is perfectly perpendicular to the backgroundmagnetic field, a set of harmonics, called Bernstein modes, were produced. These modesare characterized by their nodes being furtherly displaced along the wave vector axis for anincrease in the node (harmonic) number. The model was further generalized by allowing theangle of wave propagation, θ, with respect to the magnetic field to be varied, thus enabling thestudy of the obliquely propagating electron acoustic mode. Both the amplitude and frequencyof the electron acoustic mode was found to decrease as θ increases.Measurements in Saturn’s magnetosphere have shown the co-existence of two electron (hotand cool) components. The electron velocities are best described by a κ-distribution (insteadof a Maxwellian) which has a high-energy tail. Using an adapted PIC simulation, the study ofelectron plasma and electron acoustic waves was extended by using a κ-distribution to describethe electron velocities with low κ indices. Electron acoustic waves are damped over most wavenumber ranges while electron plasma waves are weakly damped at low wave numbers anddamped for all other wave numbers. Furthermore, the study was extended by introducingthe motion of ions to study the ion acoustic waves in Saturn’s magnetosphere. While the ionacoustic mode was found to be relatively insensitive to the κ indices of the electrons, it isfound to be sensitive to the electron temperature and density ratios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xii, 43 p.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-151415ISBN: 978-91-7595-274-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-151415DiVA: diva2:748556
Public defence
2014-10-07, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140922

Available from: 2014-09-22 Created: 2014-09-19 Last updated: 2014-09-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Particle-in-cell simulations of beam-driven electrostatic waves in a plasma
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle-in-cell simulations of beam-driven electrostatic waves in a plasma
2012 (English)In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 19, no 4, 042101- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using a particle-in-cell simulation, the characteristics of electrostatic waves are investigated in a three-electron component plasma including an electron beam. A Maxwellian distribution is used to describe the electron velocities. Three electrostatic modes are excited, namely electron plasma, electron acoustic, and beam-driven waves. These modes have a broad frequency spectrum and have been associated with intense broadband electrostatic noise observed in the Earth's auroral zone. The simulation results compare well with analytical dispersion and growth rate relations. This agreement serves to validate the simulation technique.

Keyword
Broadband electrostatic noise, Electron plasmas, Electron velocity, Electrostatic waves, Frequency spectra, Maxwellian distribution, Particle-in-cell simulations, Simulation technique, Electron beams, Electrons, Particle beam dynamics, Plasmas, Electrostatics
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-98435 (URN)10.1063/1.3695402 (DOI)000309592100001 ()2-s2.0-84860432785 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120627

Available from: 2012-06-27 Created: 2012-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. A simulation approach of high-frequency electrostatic waves found in Saturn's magnetosphere
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simulation approach of high-frequency electrostatic waves found in Saturn's magnetosphere
2012 (English)In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 19, no 4, 042102- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using a particle-in-cell simulation, the characteristics of electron plasma and electron acoustic waves are investigated in plasmas containing an ion and two electron components. The electron velocities are modeled by a combination of two kappa distributions. The model applies to the extended plasma sheet region in Saturn's magnetosphere where the cool and hot electron velocities are found to have low indices, kappa(c) similar or equal to 2 and kappa(h) similar or equal to 4. For such low values of kappa(c) and kappa(h), the electron plasma and electron acoustic waves are coupled. The model predicts weakly damped electron plasma waves while electron acoustic waves should also be observable, although less prominent.

Keyword
Electron acoustic waves, Electron component, Electron plasma waves, Electron plasmas, Electron velocity, Electrostatic waves, High frequency HF, Low index, Particle-in-cell simulations, Plasma sheet region, Simulation approach, Acoustic waves, Acoustics, Ion beams, Plasma waves, Plasmas, Electrons
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-98470 (URN)10.1063/1.3695404 (DOI)000309592100002 ()2-s2.0-84860487765 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120626

Available from: 2012-06-26 Created: 2012-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Extracting growth rates from a Particle-In-Cell simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extracting growth rates from a Particle-In-Cell simulation
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-151446 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-09-22 Created: 2014-09-22 Last updated: 2014-09-22Bibliographically approved
4. Particle-in-cell simulations of ion-acoustic waves with application to Saturn's magnetosphere
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle-in-cell simulations of ion-acoustic waves with application to Saturn's magnetosphere
2014 (English)In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 21, no 072122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using a particle-in-cell simulation, the dispersion and growth rate of the ion-acoustic mode areinvestigated for a plasma containing two ion and two electron components. The electron velocitiesare modelled by a combination of two kappa distributions, as found in Saturn’s magnetosphere.The ion components consist of adiabatic ions and an ultra-low density ion beam to drive a veryweak instability, thereby ensuring observable waves. The ion-acoustic mode is explored for a rangeof parameter values such as j, temperature ratio, and density ratio of the two electron components.The phase speed, frequency range, and growth rate of the mode are investigated. Simulations ofdouble-kappa two-temperature plasmas typical of the three regions of Saturn’s magnetosphere are also presented and analysed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-151411 (URN)10.1063/1.4891320 (DOI)000341154100024 ()2-s2.0-84904730356 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140922

Available from: 2014-09-19 Created: 2014-09-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. A particle simulation approach to oblique propagation of electrostatic waves
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A particle simulation approach to oblique propagation of electrostatic waves
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-151448 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-09-22 Created: 2014-09-22 Last updated: 2014-09-22Bibliographically approved

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