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Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distributes this power to the electric vehicles. Depending on the amount of electric vehicles in the system and the charging patterns, electric vehicle integration creates new quantities in the overall load profile that may increase the load peaks. The electric vehicle charging patterns are stochastic since they are affected by the travel behavior of the driver and the charging opportunities which implies that an electric vehicle introduction also will affect load variations. Increased load variation and load peaks may create a need for upgrades in the grid infrastructure to reduce losses, risks for overloads or damaging of components. However, with well-designed incentives for electric vehicle users and electric vehicle charging, the electric vehicles may be used as flexible loads that can help mitigate load variations and load peaks in the power system.

The aim with this doctoral thesis is to investigate and quantify the impact of electric vehicle charging on load profiles and load variations. Three key factors are identified when considering the impact of electric vehicle charging on load profiles and load variations. The key factors are: The charging moment, the charging need and the charging location. One of the conclusions in this thesis is that the level of details and the approach to model these key factors impact the estimations of the load profiles. The models that take into account a high level of mobility details will be able to create a realistic estimation of a future uncontrolled charging behavior, enabling for more accurate estimates of the impact on load profiles and the potential of individual charging strategies and external charging strategies. The thesis reviews and categorizes electric vehicle charging models in previous research, and furthermore, introduces new electric vehicle charging models to estimate the charging impact based on charging patterns induced by passenger car travel behavior. The models mainly consider EVC related to individual car travel behavior and induced charging needs for plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles. Moreover, the thesis comments on dynamic electric vehicle charging along electrified roads and also on individual charging strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , viii, 88 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2014:044
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-152237ISBN: 978-91-7595-255-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-152237DiVA: diva2:749480
Public defence
2014-10-13, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140924

Available from: 2014-09-24 Created: 2014-09-24 Last updated: 2014-09-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The customer perspective of the electric vehicles role on the electricity market
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The customer perspective of the electric vehicles role on the electricity market
2011 (English)In: 2011 8th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM), Piscataway: IEEE , 2011, 141-148 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent studies have investigated the impact and effects of using batteries in connected electric vehicles as ancillary services to the electricity grid. A common assumption made is that all parked cars are connected to the grid and available for recharging or discharging. However, the level of flexibility of people’s behavior is important and will affect the potential of using car batteries for regulation power. How customers will react if they are expected to recharge or discharge whenever the electric system need it, will depend on incentives and peoples willingness to adapt. This paper reviews existing research regarding electric vehicles and their interaction with the electric power system and investigate conditions for a potential use of the batteries as regulation power. The customer perspective of the electric vehicle’s role on the electricity market is analyzed considering participation in the control power market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: IEEE, 2011
Keyword
car batteries;control power market;customer perspective;electric power system;electric vehicles role;electricity grid;electricity market;regulation power;electric vehicles;power grids;power markets
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-51342 (URN)10.1109/EEM.2011.5952997 (DOI)2-s2.0-80052117040 (Scopus ID)978-161284284-4 (ISBN)
Conference
2011 8th International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM 11. Zagreb. 25 May 2011 - 27 May 2011
Note
QC 20111213Available from: 2011-12-12 Created: 2011-12-12 Last updated: 2014-09-24Bibliographically approved
2. A method for evaluating the impact of electric vehicle charging on transformer hotspot temperature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for evaluating the impact of electric vehicle charging on transformer hotspot temperature
Show others...
2011 (English)In: 2011 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The expected increasing market share of electric vehicles is a response to the combination of new technological developments, governmental financial control, and an attitude shift of residents to a more environmentally friendly lifestyle. The expected capacity required for charging, imposes changes in the load to the already existing components in the electric power grid. In order to continue managing these existing assets efficiently during this load change, it is important to evaluate the impact imposed by the battery charging.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-91293 (URN)10.1109/ISGTEurope.2011.6162755 (DOI)2-s2.0-84860751696 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), 2011. Manchester, UK . Dec 5 – 7, 2011
Note
QC 20120329Available from: 2012-03-12 Created: 2012-03-12 Last updated: 2014-09-24Bibliographically approved
3. Plug-in-vehicle mobility and charging flexibility Markov model based on driving behavior
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plug-in-vehicle mobility and charging flexibility Markov model based on driving behavior
2012 (English)In: 9th International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM 12, IEEE , 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Climate targets around the globe are enforcing new strategies for reducing climate impacts, which encourage automobile and electricity companies to consider an electrified vehicle market. Furthermore, the variable electricity production in the electric power system is increasing, with higher levels of wind and solar power. Due to the increased variability in the system, the need to meet fluctuations with flexible consumption is intensified. Electric vehicles with rechargeable batteries seem to become an increasingly common feature in the car fleet. Plugin vehicles (PIVs), may therefore become valuable as flexible consumers. If so, flexible PIV owners could, if they are flexible enough, increase the value of owning an electric vehicle. This paper introduces a new PIV Mobility and Charging Flexibility Markov Model, based on driving behavior for private cars. By using the new model, it is possible to simulate the potential flexibility in a future system with many PIVs. The results from a case study indicate a potential need for usage of the batteries as flexible loads to reduce the grid power fluctuations and load peaks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
International Conference on the European Energy Market, ISSN 2165-4077
Keyword
Electric power systems, Electric vehicles, Markov processes, Solar energy
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101383 (URN)10.1109/EEM.2012.6254711 (DOI)000321504700066 ()2-s2.0-84866792046 (Scopus ID)978-146730832-8 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM 12; Florence; 10 May 2012 through 12 May 2012
Note

QC 20121121

Available from: 2012-08-27 Created: 2012-08-27 Last updated: 2016-04-21Bibliographically approved
4. PHEV Home-Charging Model Based on Residential Activity Patterns
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PHEV Home-Charging Model Based on Residential Activity Patterns
Show others...
2013 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 28, no 3, 2507-2515 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have received an increased interest lately since they provide an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Based on the PHEV introduction level in the car park, the charging behaviors in an area will induce changes in the load profiles of the power system. Hence, it becomes important to investigate what impact a given PHEV introduction level has on load profiles due to expected charging behavior of residents.

Keyword
home-charging, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (phevs), synthetic activities, time-use data
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-125610 (URN)10.1109/TPWRS.2012.2230193 (DOI)000322989900046 ()2-s2.0-84880916944 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20130813

Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Static and Dynamic Vehicle-to-Grid Potential with Electrified Roads
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Static and Dynamic Vehicle-to-Grid Potential with Electrified Roads
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A large scale introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) enables for interesting opportunities such as meeting the need for power balancing in the electric system. With increased introduction of variable and renewable electricity production resources such as wind power and solar power, the need for power balancing also increases. If EV batteries can be used as individual and flexible storages performing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services with or without the possibility to inject power to the grid, this increased need for power balancing could be met. This paper investigates the potential for individual and flexible EV batteries to be used for V2G services by introducing a new model. With the model it is possible to estimate the potential for V2G power consumption and power injection with a well-developed charging infrastructure including dynamic EVC at electrified roads (ERs) and static EVC at parking sites. The model includes models for time-dependent V2G potential, dynamic EVC at ERs, static EVC at parking sites, vehicle mobility and vehicle driving power demand. A case study shows the resulting V2G potential for power consumption and power injection under different conditions with a charging infrastructure including both dynamic and static EVC infrastructure.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-152236 (URN)10.1109/ISGT-Asia.2013.6698782 (DOI)2-s2.0-84893297039 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-1346-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Asia 2013, (ISGT Asia 2013)
Note

QC 20140924

Available from: 2014-09-24 Created: 2014-09-24 Last updated: 2014-09-24Bibliographically approved
6. PHEV Utilization Model Considering Type-of-Trip and Recharging Flexibility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PHEV Utilization Model Considering Type-of-Trip and Recharging Flexibility
2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 5, no 1, 139-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electric vehicles (EVs) may soon enter the vehicle market in large numbers and change the overall fuel usage within the passenger transport sector. With increased variable consumption from EVs together with anticipated increased production from variable sources, due to renewable wind and solar power, also the balancing of the electric power system incur increased attention. This emphasizes the importance of developing models to estimate and investigate the stochasticity of personal car travel behavior and induced EV charging load. Several studies have been made in order to model the stochasticity of passenger car travel behavior but none have captured the charging behavior dependence of the type-of-trip conducted. This paper proposes a new model for plug-in-hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) utilization and recharging price sensitivity, to determine charging load profiles based on driving patterns due to the type-of-trip and corresponding charging need. This approach makes it possible to relate the type-of-trip with the consumption level, the parking location, and the charging opportunity. The proposed model is applied in a case study using Swedish car travel data. The results show the charging load impact and variation due to the stochastic PHEV type-of-trip mobility, allowing quantification of the PHEV charging impact on the system.

Keyword
Charging flexibility, electric vehicle charging (EVC) behavior, load profiles, Plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), price sensitivity, type-of-trip
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136327 (URN)10.1109/TSG.2013.2279022 (DOI)000329517300014 ()2-s2.0-84892616215 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20140211. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2013-12-04 Created: 2013-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
7. Static and Dynamic Electric Vehicle Charging Impact on Load Profile with Electrified Roads
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Static and Dynamic Electric Vehicle Charging Impact on Load Profile with Electrified Roads
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-152244 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-09-24 Created: 2014-09-24 Last updated: 2014-09-24Bibliographically approved
8. Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Strategies on Load Profiles With a Multinomial Logit Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Strategies on Load Profiles With a Multinomial Logit Model
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-152245 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-09-24 Created: 2014-09-24 Last updated: 2014-09-24Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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