Mätning och verifiering av energibalansen i ett flerbostadshus
Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Measurement and Verification of the Energy Balance in an Apartment Building (English)
Residences and locales consume approximately one third of Sweden’s total energy use with almost 60% of that usage going toward heating and warm water. The EU Commissions, in conjunction with national goals and requirements, demand a lower energy use with the goal of decreasing environmental impact in all areas.
In order to fulfill the requirements of Boverkets byggregler (Swedish Building Regulations, BBR), a building’s energy use should be verified within two years of its first use. According to their definition of energy use, however, only parts of the building’s total energy balance is taken into consideration, which is problematic since the parts not included in BBR’s requirements affect those parts that are.
The goal of the thesis, therefore, has been to research which specific parameters should be measured and verified in an apartment building in order to attain good feedback regarding the building’s energy balance. Methods used have been literary studies on the subject as well as a case study on an apartment building. In said case study, a follow-up of year 2013’s energy use was made as well as a parameter study for the building. The parameter study was a qualitative sensitivity analysis of the input parameters used in the energy simulation model, which was the same model that had been used to calculate the building’s energy use.
Using the results attained from the literature and case studies, measuring and verifying several specific parameters has been determined necessary in order to gain useful feedback regarding a building’s energy balance. In order to obtain the needed feedback, the following information is needed:
- District heating system usage as well as measurement data with a distinction between sub-systems, i.e. ventilation and radiators, are needed.
- Hot tap water usage.
- The building’s property energy with a separate log for equipment using high energy.
- Domestic energy with a separate log for the shared laundry facilities.
- Operational energy, especially for equipment with a large heat load.
- Indoor temperature measurement determined by meters that should be strategically installed in the building.
- The heat recovery efficiency of the heat exchanger/heat pump.
- Air-tightness of the building envelope.
Representative climate data for a building’s local district is also needed in addition to the information mentioned above. This data affects the energy simulation as well as the reference year correction. For example, a difference of seven percent was found in energy use for KV Kållandsö just by changing the climate file used in the simulation. This result proves that there is a need for recommended and detailed climate files used in energy simulations for different locations in Sweden.
In summary, this thesis project has shown the importance of energy coordination as well as having clear energy contracts in order to fulfill the goals regarding indoor climate and energy use. These are important during the design, building, and the follow-up phases of the building’s energy use. An important task for the energy coordinator is to specify the necessary measurement points and to create a follow-up plan to verify the building’s energy balance. Without sufficient measurement data, there will be uncertainties regarding the building’s energy balance, not to mention that verifying an energy simulation and analyzing why there is a deviating energy use would be very difficult.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. , 123 p.
Mätning, energianvändning, energiprestanda, energibalans, flerbostadshus
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-152242OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-152242DiVA: diva2:749505
Subject / course
Building Services Engineering and Energy
Master of Science in Engineering - Urban Management
Granroth, Marko, Universitetsadjunkt
Martinac, Ivo, Professor