Heuristic algorithms for a second-best congestion pricing problem
2009 (English)In: Netnomics, ISSN 1385-9587, E-ISSN 1573-7071, Vol. 10, no 1, 85-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Designing a congestion pricing scheme involves a number of complex decisions. Focusing on the quantitative parts of a congestion pricing system with link tolls, the problem involves finding the number of toll links, the link toll locations and their corresponding toll level and schedule. In this paper, we develop and evaluate methods for finding the most efficient design for a congestion pricing scheme in a road network model with elastic demand. The design efficiency is measured by the net social surplus, which is computed as the difference between the social surplus and the collection costs (i.e. setup and operational costs) of the congestion pricing system. The problem of finding such a scheme is stated as a combinatorial bi-level optimization problem. At the upper level, we maximize the net social surplus and at the lower level we solve a user equilibrium problem with elastic demand, given the toll locations and toll levels, to simulate the user response. We modify a known heuristic procedure for finding the optimal locations and toll levels given a fixed number of tolls to locate, to find the optimal number of toll facilities as well. A new heuristic procedure, based on repeated solutions of a continuous approximation of the combinatorial problem is also presented. Numerical results for two small test networks are presented. Both methods perform satisfactorily on the two networks. Comparing the two methods, we find that the continuous approximation procedure is the one which shows the best results.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 10, no 1, 85-102 p.
Bi-level optimization, Collection cost, Congestion pricing, Network design, Toll locations, Traffic assignment, Transport modeling, User equilibrium
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-153629DOI: 10.1007/s11066-008-9019-9ScopusID: 2-s2.0-67349198619OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-153629DiVA: diva2:752758
QC 201410062014-10-062014-10-062014-10-06Bibliographically approved