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2014 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 793, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Sun has a polar magnetic field which oscillates with the 11 yr sunspot cycle. This polar magnetic field is an important component of the dynamo process which operates in the solar convection zone and produces the sunspot cycle. We have direct systematic measurements of the Sun's polar magnetic field only from about the mid-1970s. There are, however, indirect proxies which give us information about this field at earlier times. The Ca-K spectroheliograms taken at the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory during 1904-2007 have now been digitized with 4k x 4k CCD and have higher resolution (similar to 0.86 arcsec) than the other available historical data sets. From these Ca-K spectroheliograms, we have developed a completely new proxy (polar network index, hereafter PNI) for the Sun's polar magnetic field. We calculate PNI from the digitized images using an automated algorithm and calibrate our measured PNI against the polar field as measured by the Wilcox Solar Observatory for the period 1976-1990. This calibration allows us to estimate the polar fields for the earlier period up to 1904. The dynamo calculations performed with this proxy as input data reproduce reasonably well the Sun's magnetic behavior for the past century.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 793, no 1
Keyword [en]
magnetic fields, Sun: activity, Sun: faculae, plages
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-153255DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/793/1/L4ISI: 000341313700004ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84920691341OAI: diva2:754027

QC 20141009

Available from: 2014-10-09 Created: 2014-10-03 Last updated: 2014-10-09Bibliographically approved

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Karak, Bidya Binay
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