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High Quality III-V Semiconductors/Si Heterostructures for Photonic Integration and Photovoltaic Applications
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with one of the promising strategies to monolithically integrate III-V semiconductors with silicon via epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technology and is supported by extensive experimental results. The aimed applications are light sources on silicon for electronics-photonics integration and cost effective high efficiency multijunction solar cells.

The work focusses on the growth of III-V semiconductors consisting of indium phosphide (InP) and its related alloys on silicon primarily because of the bandgaps that these offer for the aimed applications. For this purpose, we make use of the epitaxial growth technique called hydride vapour phase epitaxy and exploit its near equilibrium operation capability to achieve primarily ELOG of high quality InP as the starting material on patterned InP(seed)/silicon wafer. The InP/InGaAsP layers are grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy.

Different pattern designs are investigated to achieve high quality InP over a large area of silicon by ELOG to realise lasers. First, nano patterns designed to take advantage of aspect ratio trapping of defects are investigated. Despite substantial defect filtering insufficient growth area is achieved. To achieve a larger area, coalescence from multiple nano openings is used. Shallowly etched InP/InGaAsP based microdisk resonators fabricated on indium phosphide on silicon achieved by this method have shown whispering gallery modes. However, no lasing action is observed partly due to the formation of new defects at the points of coalescence and partly due to leakage losses due to shallow etching. To overcome these limitations, a new design mimicking the futuristic monolithic evanescently coupled laser design supporting an efficient mode coupling and athermal operation is adopted to yield large areas of ELOG InP/Si having good carrier transport and optical properties. Microdisk resonators fabricated from the uniformly obtained InP/InGaAsP structures on the ELOG InP layers have shown very strong spontaneous luminescence close to lasing action. This is observed for the first time in InP/InGaAsP laser structures grown on ELOG InP on silicon.

A newly modified ELOG approach called Corrugated ELOG is also developed. Transmission electron microscopy analyses show the formation of abrupt interface between InP and silicon. Electrical measurements have supported the linear Ohmic behaviour of the above junction. This proof of concept can be applied to even other III-V compound solar cells on silicon. This allows only thin layers of expensive III-V semiconductors and cheap silicon as separate subcells for fabricating next generation multijunction solar cells with enhanced efficiencies at low cost. A feasible device structure of such a solar cell is presented. The generic nature of this technique also makes it suitable for integration of III-V light sources with silicon and one such design is proposed.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , ix, 61 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610
National Category
Nano Technology Telecommunications Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-153946ISBN: 978-91-7595-289-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-153946DiVA: diva2:754398
Public defence
2014-10-31, SAL A, Electrum, Isafjordsgatan 22, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20141010

Available from: 2014-10-10 Created: 2014-10-10 Last updated: 2014-10-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Towards a monolithically integrated III-V laser on silicon: Optimization of multi-quantum well growth of InP on Si
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a monolithically integrated III-V laser on silicon: Optimization of multi-quantum well growth of InP on Si
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2013 (English)In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 28, no 9, 094008- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-quality InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum wells (MQWs) on the isolated areas of indium phosphide on silicon necessary for realizing a monolithically integrated silicon laser is achieved. Indium phosphide layer on silicon, the pre-requisite for the growth of quantum wells is achieved via nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth (NELOG) technique from a defective seed indium phosphide layer on silicon. This technique makes use of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) from closely spaced (1 m) e-beam lithography-patterned nano-sized openings (∼300 nm) by low-pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy. A silicon dioxide mask with carefully designed opening patterns and thickness with respect to the opening width is used to block the defects propagating from the indium phosphide seed layer by the so-called necking effect. Growth conditions are optimized to obtain smooth surface morphology even after coalescence of laterally grown indium phosphide from adjacent openings. Surface morphology and optical properties of the NELOG indium phosphide layer are studied using atomic force microscopy, cathodoluminescence and room temperature -photoluminescence (-PL) measurements. Metal organic vapor phase epitaxial growth of InGaAsP/InP MQWs on the NELOG indium phosphide is conducted. The mask patterns to avoid loading effect that can cause excessive well/barrier thickness and composition change with respect to the targeted values is optimized. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope studies show that the coalesced NELOG InP on Si is defect-free. PL measurement results indicate the good material quality of the grown MQWs. Microdisk (MD) cavities are fabricated from the MQWs on ELOG layer. PL spectra reveal the existence of resonant modes arising out of these MD cavities. A mode solver using finite difference method indicates the pertinent steps that should be adopted to realize lasing.

Keyword
Composition changes, Epitaxial lateral overgrowth, Hydride vapor phase epitaxy, Ingaasp/inp multi-quantum wells, Lateral overgrowth, Metal organic vapor phase epitaxial growth, Monolithically integrated, Multiquantum wells
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-127836 (URN)10.1088/0268-1242/28/9/094008 (DOI)000323418400009 ()2-s2.0-84883163523 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research VINNOVA
Note

QC 20150624

Available from: 2013-09-09 Created: 2013-09-09 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Simple Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth Process as a Strategy for Photonic Integration on Silicon
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simple Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth Process as a Strategy for Photonic Integration on Silicon
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2014 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 20, no 4, 8201407- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we propose a strategy to achieve monolithic integration of III-Vs on Si for photonic integration through a simple process. By mimicking the SiO2/Si/SiO2 waveguide necessary to couple light from the gain medium on its top, we adopt a similar to 2 mu m thick silicon dioxide mask for epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of InP on Si. The ELOG InP layer as wells as the subsequently grown quantum wells (similar to 1. 55 mu m) have been analyzed by photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy and found to have high optical quality and very good interface. The studies are strategically important for a monolithic platform that holds great potential in addressing the future need to have an integrated platform consisting of both III-Vs and Si on same chip.

Keyword
Monolithic integration of III-Vs on Si, integrated photonics, III-V lasers on Si, ELOG
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141954 (URN)10.1109/JSTQE.2013.2294453 (DOI)000330317900027 ()2-s2.0-84957883633 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20140228

Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Carrier-transport, optical and structural properties of large area ELOG InP on Si using conventional optical lithography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carrier-transport, optical and structural properties of large area ELOG InP on Si using conventional optical lithography
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2013 (English)In: 2013 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 6562592- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present the carrier-transport, optical and structural properties of InP deposited on Si by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELOG) in a Low Pressure-Hydride Vapor phase epitaxy (LP-HVPE). Hall measurements, micro photoluminescence (μ-PL) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the above-mentioned respective properties at room temperature. It is the first time that electrical properties of ELOG InP on Si are studied by Hall measurements. Prior to ELOG, etching of patterned silicon dioxide (SiO2) mask leading to a high aspect ratio, i. e. mask thickness to opening width >2 was optimized to eliminate defect propagation even above the opening. Dense high aspect ratio structures were fabricated in SiO2 to obtain ELOG InP on Si, coalesced over large area, making it feasible to perform Hall measurements. We examine this method and study Hall mobility, strain and optical quality of large area ELOG InP on Si.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Keyword
ELOG, Hall, HVPE, InP, Defect propagation, Epitaxial lateral overgrowth, High aspect ratio structures, Micro photoluminescence, Aspect ratio, Epitaxial growth, Indium, Indium phosphide, Photolithography, Silicon, Structural properties, X ray diffraction, Electric properties
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133838 (URN)10.1109/ICIPRM.2013.6562592 (DOI)000326658100032 ()2-s2.0-84882425360 (Scopus ID)9781467361309 (ISBN)978-1-4673-6131-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IPRM 2013 25th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, Kobe, Japan, 19-23 May 2013
Note

QC 20131112

Available from: 2013-11-12 Created: 2013-11-11 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
4. High quality large area ELOG InP on silicon for photonic integration using conventional optical lithography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High quality large area ELOG InP on silicon for photonic integration using conventional optical lithography
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2014 (English)In: SMART PHOTONIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS XVI, 2014, 898904- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A simple method of growing large areas of InP on Si through Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELOG) is presented. Isolated areas of high quality InP suitable for photonic integration are grown in deeply etched SiO2 mask fabricated using conventional optical lithography and reactive ion etching. This method is particularly attractive for monolithically integrating laser sources grown on InP with Si/SiO2 waveguide structure as the mask. The high optical quality of multi quantum well (MQW) layers grown on the ELOG layer is promisingly supportive of the feasibility of this method for mass production.

Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; 8989
Keyword
InP on Si, Photonic Integration, ELOG
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-147760 (URN)10.1117/12.2039794 (DOI)000336802200002 ()2-s2.0-84901706728 (Scopus ID)978-0-8194-9902-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Smart Photonic and Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits XVI, FEB 05-06, 2014, San Francisco, CA
Note

QC 20140703

Available from: 2014-07-03 Created: 2014-07-03 Last updated: 2014-10-10Bibliographically approved
5. Study of planar defect filtering in InP grown on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of planar defect filtering in InP grown on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowth
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2013 (English)In: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 3, no 11, 1960-1973 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

InP thin films have been grown on InP/Si substrate by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG). The nature, origin and filtering of extended defects in ELOG layers grown from single and double openings in SiO2 mask have been investigated. Whereas ELOG layers grown from double openings occasionally exhibit threading dislocations (TDs) at certain points of coalescence, TDs are completely absent in ELOG from single openings. Furthermore, stacking faults (SFs) observed in ELOG layers grown from both opening types originate not from coalescence, but possibly from formation during early stages of ELOG or simply propagate from the seed layer through the mask openings. A model describing their propagation is devised and applied to the existent conditions, showing that SFs can effectively be filtered under certain conditions. ELOG layers grown from identical patterns on InP substrate contained no defects, indicating that the defect-forming mechanism is in any case not inherent to ELOG itself.

Keyword
Stacking-Faults, Temperature, Gaas, Mechanism, Substrate, Gap, Generation, Reduction, Si(001), Devices
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136499 (URN)10.1364/OME.3.001960 (DOI)000326676000020 ()2-s2.0-84888071244 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research VinnovaKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20131209

Available from: 2013-12-09 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
6. Realization of an atomically abrupt InP/Si heterojunction via corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Realization of an atomically abrupt InP/Si heterojunction via corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth
2014 (English)In: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, Vol. 16, no 34, 7889-7893 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A coherent InP/Si heterojunction with an atomically abrupt interface and low defect density is obtained by conducting corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP on an engineered (001) Si substrate, with InP seed mesa oriented at 30[degree] from the [110] direction in a hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. Ohmic conduction across the InP/Si heterojunction can be achieved.

National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-148143 (URN)10.1039/C4CE00844H (DOI)000340427000008 ()2-s2.0-84905576561 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140911

Available from: 2014-07-30 Created: 2014-07-30 Last updated: 2014-10-10Bibliographically approved
7. Optimization of InP growth directly on Si by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of InP growth directly on Si by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth
2015 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 48, no 4, 045102- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an attempt to achieve an InP-Si heterointerface, a new and generic method, the corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) technique in a hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor, was studied. An InP seed layer on Si (0 0 1) was patterned into closely spaced etched mesa stripes, revealing the Si surface in between them. The surface with the mesa stripes resembles a corrugated surface. The top and sidewalls of the mesa stripes were then covered by a SiO2 mask after which the line openings on top of the mesa stripes were patterned. Growth of InP was performed on this corrugated surface. It is shown that growth of InP emerges selectively from the openings and not on the exposed silicon surface, but gradually spreads laterally to create a direct interface with the silicon, hence the name CELOG. We study the growth behavior using growth parameters. The lateral growth is bounded by high index boundary planes of {3 3 1} and {2 1 1}. The atomic arrangement of these planes, crystallographic orientation dependent dopant incorporation and gas phase supersaturation are shown to affect the extent of lateral growth. A lateral to vertical growth rate ratio as large as 3.6 is achieved. X-ray diffraction studies confirm substantial crystalline quality improvement of the CELOG InP compared to the InP seed layer. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the formation of a direct InP-Si heterointerface by CELOG without threading dislocations. While CELOG is shown to avoid dislocations that could arise due to the large lattice mismatch (8%) between InP and Si, staking faults could be seen in the layer. These are probably created by the surface roughness of the Si surface or SiO2 mask which in turn would have been a consequence of the initial process treatments. The direct InP-Si heterointerface can find applications in high efficiency and cost-effective Si based III-V semiconductor multijunction solar cells and optoelectronics integration.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145363 (URN)10.1088/0022-3727/48/4/045102 (DOI)000348300900003 ()2-s2.0-84921046568 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Energy AgencyVINNOVA
Note

Updated from "Pre-print" to "Article in journal". QC 20150227

Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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