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Gasification and Pyrolysis Characterization and Heat Transfer Phenomena During Thermal Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9760-9298
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The significant generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a controversial global issue. Pyrolysis and gasification technologies for treating rejects from solid waste disposal sites (SWDSs), for which over 50 % of MSW is attributed to combustible species, have attracted considerable attention. MSW is an alternative energy source that can partly replace fossil resources; there is an increasing awareness that global warming caused by the utilization of fossil resources is occurring.

The goal of this thesis is to realize the efficient and rational utilization of MSW and decrease the harmful impact of pollutants, such as dioxin, HCl, and CO2, on the environment. To achieve this goal, some fundamental studies have been experimentally and numerically conducted to enhance the understanding of the properties of municipal solid waste thermal conversion.

In this thesis, the pyrolysis behaviors of single pelletized recovered fuel were tested. A detailed comparison of the pyrolysis behaviors of typical recovered solid waste and biomass particles was conducted. A swelling phenomenon with a swelling ratio of approximately 1.6 was observed on the surface of pelletized recovered fuels. Subsequently, a particle model was constructed to describe the thermal conversion process for large recovered fuel particles that are composed of a high fraction of polyethylene (PE) and a comparable low fraction of cardboard. The results indicate that an understanding of the heat transfer mechanism in highly porous and molten structures and the selection of a heat transfer model are crucial for accurate prediction of the conversion process.

MSW pyrolysis is a promising method for producing liquid products. With the exception of lignocellulosic materials, such as printing paper and cardboard, PE, polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are the six main polymers in domestic waste in Europe. Characterization studies of the products obtained from these individual components, such as PE, PET, PVC, printing paper, and cardboard, have been conducted on a pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) system and a fixed-bed reactor. The possible pathways for the formation of the main primary/secondary products in rapid and conventional pyrolysis were also discussed.

MSW steam gasification with CaO was performed in a batch-type fixed-bed gasifier to examine the effect of CaO addition on the heat transfer properties, pollutant removal, and devolatilization and char gasification behaviors in the presence of steam.

A new carbon capture and recycle (CCR) system combined with an integrated municipal solid waste system was proposed. The foundation of the system is the development of a novel method to remediate CO2 using a high-temperature process of reforming CH4 and/or O2 and/or H2O without catalysts. Thermodynamic and experimental studies were performed. High temperatures significantly promoted the multi-reforming process while preventing the problem of catalyst deactivation. Potential improvements in the efficiency of the novel technology can be achieved by optimizing the reforming reactants. Landfill gas (LFG) and fuel gas from bio-waste treatment contain a considerable fraction of CH4, which may be a source of CH4 for this process.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xiv, 127 p.
Keyword [en]
municipal solid waste, pyrolysis, gasification, heat transfer, CaO, CO2, reforming, numerical model
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology; Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-154587ISBN: 978-91-7595-284-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-154587DiVA: diva2:757954
Public defence
2014-11-10, Sal F3, Lindstedtvägen 26, KTH, stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC20141028

Available from: 2014-10-28 Created: 2014-10-24 Last updated: 2014-10-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A study of the pyrolysis behaviors of pelletized recovered municipal solid waste fuels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of the pyrolysis behaviors of pelletized recovered municipal solid waste fuels
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2013 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 107, 173-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pelletized recovered solid waste fuel is often applied in gasification systems to provide feedstock with a stabilized quality and high heating value and to avoid the bridging behavior caused by high moisture content, low particle density, and irregular particle size. However, the swelling properties and the sticky material generated from pyrolysis of the plastic group components also tend to trigger bridging in the retorting zone. It is well known that the plastic group materials, which occupy a considerable proportion of municipal solid waste, can melt together easily even under low temperature. This study investigates the pyrolysis behaviors of typical recovered solid waste pellets, including the devolatilization rate, heat transfer properties, char properties, and swelling/shrinkage properties, in a small fixed-bed facility over a wide temperature range, from 900 degrees C to 450 degrees C. The results are also compared with those from wheat straw pellets, a typical cellulosic fuel. Moreover, the SEM images and BET analysis of the char structure are further analyzed to provide additional explanation for the mechanisms of swelling/shrinkage phenomena observed during heating.

Keyword
Fixed-bed gasifier, Municipal solid waste (MSW), Pellet, Pyrolysis, Swelling
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123611 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.02.029 (DOI)000318456700015 ()2-s2.0-84875195695 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130614

Available from: 2013-06-14 Created: 2013-06-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Effect of heat transfer model on the prediction of municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of heat transfer model on the prediction of municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis process
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
municipal solid waste (MSW), pyrolysis, heat transfer model, polyethylene;
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-154870 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-10-28 Created: 2014-10-28 Last updated: 2014-10-28Bibliographically approved
3. Characteristics of waste printing paper and cardboard in a reactor pyrolyzed by preheated agents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of waste printing paper and cardboard in a reactor pyrolyzed by preheated agents
2013 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 116, 63-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We studied the characteristics of waste printing paper and cardboard particles in a reactor pyrolyzed by preheated agents with the aim of simulating a real case in a fixed-bed gasifier. A TGA/DSC was first used to study of the kinetics and enthalpy change of the printing paper and cardboard pyrolysis. Pyrolitic conversion was further carried out in a batch-type reactor with non-electrical heating. Syngas, tar and char were produced and characterized from printing paper and cardboard pyrolysis at 400 degrees C, 500 degrees C and 600 degrees C. Different flow rates of carrier gas were applied to study the effect of residence time on the products distribution. When the flow rate increased, the relative mass change of gas agrees with that of tar. With increase in temperature, the yield of furfural, olefins and other non-aromatic compounds in tar decreased, while phenols and heavier aromatic hydrocarbons increased. The evolution of CO2, CO and other gas species in the syngas was presented. Van Krevelan diagram of chars was also presented in the paper.

Keyword
Printing paper, Cardboard, Pyrolysis, TGA/DSC
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129702 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2013.04.023 (DOI)000325844100008 ()2-s2.0-84877990677 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131115

Available from: 2013-10-03 Created: 2013-10-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Effect of calcium oxide on high-temperature steam gasification of municipal solid waste
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of calcium oxide on high-temperature steam gasification of municipal solid waste
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2014 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 122, 36-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Steam gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) using a CaO additive was investigated in a batch-type fixed bed, to examine the effects of CaO addition on the heat transfer properties, the devolatilization characteristics of MSW, CO2 adsorption capacities of CaO, and char gasification in the presence of steam. Evolutionary behaviors of syngas molar compositions and individual gas flow rates at both MSW devolatilization and char gasification stages were examined at different CaO/MSW mass ratios with a fixed MSW mass. The effect of temperature varying from 700 to 900 C was also considered in this test. In both stages, hydrogen concentrations were found to increase and CaO was found to have a catalytic effect. Finally, using from the experimental observations and the results of SEM/EDS analyses of the obtained residues, the mechanism underlying the catalytic effects of calcium species in both reaction stages was discussed.

Keyword
Calcium oxide, Gasification, Municipal solid waste, Syngas
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142313 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2014.01.029 (DOI)000331544100005 ()2-s2.0-84893299983 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140305

Available from: 2014-03-05 Created: 2014-02-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Study and development of a high temperature process of multi-reformation of CH4 with CO2 for remediation of greenhouse gas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study and development of a high temperature process of multi-reformation of CH4 with CO2 for remediation of greenhouse gas
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2011 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 9, 5450-5459 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new carbon capture and recycle (CCR) system based on multi-reforming of CH4 with CO2 is proposed in this study. The aim was to develop a novel method to remediate greenhouse gases (CO2) using a high temperature (over 1173 K) process of reforming CH4 and/or O2, and/or H2O without catalysts. Using this novel method, the reactants are individually preheated to over 1173 K using a ceramic honeycomb heat exchanger, and then these high temperature streams enter the reactor to start the reforming reactions. Both thermodynamic and experimental studies were carried out on this novel method. Thermodynamic equilibrium models were built for four types of reforming, including dry reforming, bi-reforming, auto-thermal reforming, and tri-reforming. Only dry reforming was experimentally tested. The feasibility of this novel technology was proven by simulated and experimental results. High temperatures significantly promoted the multi-reforming process while avoiding the problem of catalyst deactivation. The experimental results on the direct system also showed that potential improvements in the efficiency of the novel technology could be achieved by optimizing the reforming reactants. Therefore, a continuous system was proposed. Moreover, the power source for the application of CCR systems was also discussed.

Keyword
CO2 emission, CCS, Dry reforming
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129704 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2011.07.045 (DOI)000295242000003 ()2-s2.0-80052090053 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131025

Available from: 2013-10-03 Created: 2013-10-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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