Applicability of using GIN method, by considering theoretical approach of grouting design
2015 (English)In: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 33, no 6, 1431-1448 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
In the practice of grouting of fractured rock, currently, empirical methods are used. Amongst them, the GIN method is popular mostly in Europe and has been tried in many projects. The concept of this method is to limit the combination of pressure and injected volume to a specific grout intensity number in order to control the energy induced in the rock fractures and to avoid uplift. However, difficulties in employing this method have been reported, which are mainly due to uncertainties in recognizing the distance of grout penetration and the state of the fractures during grouting and at the completion grouting. In this paper, the purpose has been examining the applicability of the GIN method by defining the characteristic curve of the P·V diagram (referred to here as the hyperbola) and suggesting appropriate completion criteria based on the radius of grout spread around the borehole. This will provide the chance to assign a permitted level of fracture deformation (or jacking) to the GIN by considering the formulation of fracture deformation based on grout propagation in a previously developed theoretical approach by Stille et al. (Geotech Geol Eng 30:603–624, 2012) as a part of the Real Time Grouting Control Method. Thus, in attaining the hyperbola, the identified radius of grout spread is achieved and the resulting fracture deformation at this completion point can be beneficial in improving penetrability. However, if the full extent of this deformation extends beyond the grouted zone, part of the fracture may remain un-grouted, and this will affect the sealing efficiency of the grouting program. This may be continued by selecting a smaller GIN and reducing the grouting pressure as the real time pressure–volume plot moves along the hyperbola, which will bring the fracture back to its initial state as grouting approaches the completion point, i.e. when the grout has spread to the desired distance. This hypothesis has been examined against the grouting works performed in three different real projects, for which the grouting parameters can be determined from the available grouting records. It is concluded that the GIN used in practice was much higher than the theoretically estimated values obtained through the proposed analytical solution. Furthermore, in the grouting of fractures close to the surface, the radius of grout spread impacts the GIN significantly, and only a limited grouting pressure is applicable, thus in using split spacing technique in such circumstances, different GINs should be selected for different sets of boreholes to obtain enough propagation at the maximum applicable pressure. The introduced analytical solution introduced in this paper can be a useful procedure for designing the GIN based on the grout spread. Nevertheless, it becomes complicated in dealing with fracture deformation. In a difficult grouting case where the demand for sealing is high, the recommendation is to use the proposed theoretical approach, which provides detailed information during the actual grouting procedure, by estimation of the radius of grout spread and the state of the fracture in real time
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015. Vol. 33, no 6, 1431-1448 p.
Fracture deformation, GIN method, Grout spread, Grouting pressure, Stop criteria, Theoretical approach
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155457DOI: 10.1007/s10706-015-9910-8ISI: 000364507900004ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84946025502OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-155457DiVA: diva2:761242
Updated from Manuscript to Article. QC 201602092014-11-062014-11-062016-02-09Bibliographically approved