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The Path Not Yet Taken: Bilateral Trade Agreements to Promote Sustainable Biofuels Under the EU Renewable Energy Directive
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
2014 (English)In: The Environmental Law Reporter, ISSN 0046-2284, Vol. 44, no 7, 10607-10629 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The European Union Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED) established sustainability criteria for biofuels counted under the target of 10% renewable energy for transport. The main approach thus far to certify compliance with the sustainability criteria has been voluntary schemes that are submitted for approval to the European Commission. Scant attention has been paid to the potential role of bilateral agreements in fulfilling the sustainability criteria, which could offer a more strategic approach. This article examines the role and potential applicability and effectiveness of the bilateral option based on Article 18(4) of the EU-RED. Of special interest is the question of how bilateral agreements might provide a more flexible governance mechanism for meeting sustainability criteria in developing countries that export to the EU while also addressing more general land-use policies and cross-sector linkages in natural resource management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Environmental Law Institute , 2014. Vol. 44, no 7, 10607-10629 p.
National Category
Law (excluding Law and Society)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155714OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-155714DiVA: diva2:762162
Note

QC 20141112

Available from: 2014-11-10 Created: 2014-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Exploiting cross-level linkages to steer the bioenergy transition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploiting cross-level linkages to steer the bioenergy transition
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis develops the notion of the bioenergy transition as the long-term transformation of biomass from a local resource into a global commodity. An historical assessment is combined with interdisciplinary analysis that focuses especially on liquid biofuels and highlights the environmentally innovative case of bioethanol. The bioenergy transition is investigated from several different perspectives: technical-economic, socio-economic, socio-technical and political-economic. Linkages across different levels from household to global are analysed in relation to the effectiveness of bioenergy policies. In addition to studies at household and national levels, a North-South perspective is taken by including two major regions: the European Union (EU) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The relation of EU biofuels policy to international climate and trade regimes is assessed to show how regional-global linkages affect policy design and implementation.

Household bioenergy markets in developing countries are poorly articulated and difficult to link to other sectors; a detailed choice model in Ethiopia showed that product-specific factors should be evaluated to inform design of programmes and policies. Municipal and sub-national markets for bioenergy have been successfully linked to national policies to coordinate supply and demand in Brazil and Sweden. Regional market development for biofuels has great potential in southern Africa but regional-national linkages currently remain unexploited. National level efforts remain quite important in terms of energy security and environmental innovation, as evidenced in Brazil, Malawi and Sweden. Biofuels sustainability criteria in the EU Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED) were evaluated in relation to the international climate and trade regimes and were found to shift some costs onto developing countries. One of the mechanisms for assuring biofuels sustainability is bilateral agreements, which remain untested but potentially effective.

Cross-level linkages were often unexploited in the cases studied; national approaches cannot easily capture complementarities across sectors and scales in biophysical and economic terms. Linking biofuels markets across different levels from household to global through regional development policies and specialised governance mechanisms could help to steer the bioenergy transition towards sustainability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xiv, 135 p.
Series
TRITA-ECS Report, 2014/03
Keyword
energy transition, modern bioenergy, traditional biomass, cross-level linkages, institutional design, regional development, alternative fuels
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155686 (URN)978-91-7595-342-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-25, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20141112

Available from: 2014-11-11 Created: 2014-11-09 Last updated: 2014-11-11Bibliographically approved

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