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Resonance Testing of Asphalt Concrete
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis present novel non-destructive laboratory test methods to characterize asphalt concrete. The testing is based on frequency response measurements of specimens where resonance frequencies play a key role to derive material properties such as the complex modulus and complex Poisson’s ratio. These material properties are directly related to pavement quality and used in thickness design of pavements.

Since conventional cyclic loading is expensive, time consuming and complicated to perform, there has been a growing interest to apply resonance and ultrasonic testing to estimate the material properties of asphalt concrete. Most of these applications have been based on analytical approximations which are limited to characterizing the complex modulus at one frequency per temperature. This is a significant limitation due to the strong frequency dependency of asphalt concrete. In this thesis, numerical methods are applied to develop a methodology based on modal testing of laboratory samples to characterize material properties over a wide frequency and temperature range (i.e. a master curve).

The resonance frequency measurements are performed by exciting the specimens using an impact hammer and through a non-contact approach using a speaker. An accelerometer is used to measure the resulting vibration of the specimen. The material properties can be derived from these measurements since resonance frequencies of a solid are a function of the stiffness, mass, dimensions and boundary conditions.

The methodology based on modal testing to characterize the material properties has been developed through the work presented in paper I and II, compared to conventional cyclic loading in paper III and IV and used to observe deviations from isotropic linear viscoelastic behavior in paper V. In paper VI, detailed measurements of resonance frequencies have been performed to study the possibility to detect damage and potential healing of asphalt concrete. 

The resonance testing are performed at low strain levels (~10^-7) which gives a direct link to surface wave testing of pavements in the field. This enables non-destructive quality control of pavements, since the field measurements are performed at approximately the same frequency range and strain level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , xiii, 51 p.
Series
TRITA-TSC-PHD, 14:008
Keyword [en]
Resonance frequencies; Modal testing; Frequency response functions; Cyclic loading; Tension-compression tests; Complex modulus; Complex Poisson’s ratio
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155906ISBN: 978-91-87353-50-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-155906DiVA: diva2:763296
Public defence
2014-12-08, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20141117

Available from: 2014-11-17 Created: 2014-11-14 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Application of resonant acoustic spectroscopy to asphalt concrete beams for determination of the dynamic modulus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of resonant acoustic spectroscopy to asphalt concrete beams for determination of the dynamic modulus
2012 (English)In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 45, no 12, 1903-1913 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a new application of resonant acoustic spectroscopy (RAS) is examined for constructing asphalt concrete mastercurves from seismic testing. The frequency-dependent material properties can be characterized from multiple modes of vibration through the use of RAS. Beam-shaped asphalt specimens are tested at multiple temperatures to determine the resonance frequencies of the specimens. The resonance frequencies are estimated by applying a small load impulse and measuring the resulting acceleration through the specimens. Using RAS, the material properties of the specimens are determined numerically using the measured resonance frequencies. The results presented show that the frequency-dependent dynamic modulus of the asphalt concrete specimens can be characterized using several modes of vibration at each testing temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2012
Keyword
Resonant acoustic spectroscopy, Resonance frequency, Dynamic modulus, Mastercurve
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104234 (URN)10.1617/s11527-012-9877-3 (DOI)000311786400009 ()
Note

QC 20121112

Available from: 2012-10-30 Created: 2012-10-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Characterizing the low strain complex modulus of asphalt concrete specimens through optimization of frequency response functions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterizing the low strain complex modulus of asphalt concrete specimens through optimization of frequency response functions
2012 (English)In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 132, no 4, 2304-2312 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measured and finite element simulated frequency response functions are used to characterize the low strain (similar to 10(-7)) complex moduli of an asphalt concrete specimen. The frequency response functions of the specimen are measured at different temperatures by using an instrumented hammer to apply a load and an accelerometer to measure the dynamic response. Theoretical frequency response functions are determined by modeling the specimen as a three-dimensional (3D) linear isotropic viscoelastic material in a finite element program. The complex moduli are characterized by optimizing the theoretical frequency response functions against the measured ones. The method is shown to provide a good fit between the frequency response functions, giving an estimation of the complex modulus between minimum 500 Hz and maximum 18 vertical bar 000 Hz depending on the temperature. Furthermore, the optimization method is shown to give a good estimation of the complex modulus master curve.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Acoustical Society of America (ASA), 2012
Keyword
Asphalt concrete, Dynamic response, Optimization, Three dimensional
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104235 (URN)10.1121/1.4747016 (DOI)000309650600036 ()2-s2.0-84867340539 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20121112

Available from: 2012-10-30 Created: 2012-10-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Comparing Linear Viscoelastic Properties of Asphalt Concrete Measured by Laboratory Seismic and Tension–Compression Tests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing Linear Viscoelastic Properties of Asphalt Concrete Measured by Laboratory Seismic and Tension–Compression Tests
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Journal of nondestructive evaluation, ISSN 0195-9298, E-ISSN 1573-4862, Vol. 33, no 4, 571-582 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seismic measurements and conventional cyclic loading have been applied to a cylindrical asphalt concrete specimen to compare the complex modulus and complex Poisson’s ratio between the two testing methods. The seismic moduli and Poisson’s ratio have been characterized by optimizing finite element calculated frequency response functions to measurements performed at different temperatures. An impact hammer and an accelerometer were used to measure the frequency response functions of the specimen which was placed on soft foam for free boundary conditions. The cyclic loading was performed by applying both tension and compression to the specimen while measuring the displacements in the axial and radial direction. The Havriliak–Negami and the 2S2P1D model have been used to estimate master curves of the complex modulus and complex Poisson’s ratio from the seismic and the tension–compression tests. The seismic measurements performed at a lower strain level than the tension–compression test give a higher absolute value of the complex moduli (e.g.∼12% at 100 Hz) and a lower phase angle compared to the tension–compression results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2014
Keyword
Asphalt concrete, Complex modulus, Complex Poisson's ratio, Seismic measurements, Frequency response functions, Conventional cyclic loading
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155903 (URN)10.1007/s10921-014-0253-9 (DOI)000344095700010 ()2-s2.0-84910007369 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20141117

Available from: 2014-11-14 Created: 2014-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Complex modulus and complex Poisson's ratio from cyclic and dynamic modal testing of asphalt concrete
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complex modulus and complex Poisson's ratio from cyclic and dynamic modal testing of asphalt concrete
2015 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 88, 20-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The complex moduli and complex Poisson's ratio of two cylindrical asphalt concrete specimens have been determined through modal testing in this paper. These results have been compared to cyclic tension-compression measured complex moduli and complex Poisson's ratio of asphalt concrete specimens with different dimensions. The modal testing has been performed by measuring frequency response functions of the specimens using an impact hammer and an accelerometer. The material properties have been characterized by matching finite element computed frequency response functions to the measurements. The results of the different specimens show that the modal test systematically give a slightly higher absolute value of the complex moduli compared to the cyclic testing. The differences are most likely a result of the different strain levels applied in the two test methods. However, the modal and cyclic tension-compression testing resulted in similar values of the complex Poisson's ratio for the two different asphalt concrete mixtures despite the different applied strain levels.

Keyword
Asphalt concrete, Complex, Complex modulus, Cyclic testing, Frequency response functions, Modal testing, Poisson's ratio, Asphalt, Asphalt mixtures, Compression testing, Concrete mixtures, Concrete testing, Concretes, Frequency response, Modal analysis, Poisson ratio, Modal testings
National Category
Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-167690 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.04.007 (DOI)000357909700003 ()2-s2.0-84927929073 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150602

Available from: 2015-06-02 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
5. Observed deviations from isotropic linear viscoelastic behavior of asphalt concrete through modal testing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Observed deviations from isotropic linear viscoelastic behavior of asphalt concrete through modal testing
2014 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 66, 63-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The complex Young's moduli, complex shear moduli and complex Poisson's ratio of a beam shaped asphalt concrete specimen have been characterized through low strain (similar to 10(-7)) frequency response function measurements. The assumption of isotropic linear viscoelastic behavior has been applied and investigated. The results indicate that the asphalt concrete specimen agree with the isotropic linear viscoelastic assumption at low temperatures and high frequencies (>10 kHz at 0 degrees C), but at higher temperatures and lower frequencies, discrepancies from isotropic linear behavior are shown. The dynamic shear moduli calculated from the estimated Young's moduli and Poisson's ratio of the asphalt concrete specimen are overestimated for frequencies and temperatures often applied to pavements.

Keyword
Asphalt concrete, Complex modulus, Complex shear modulus, Complex Poisson's ratio, Modal testing, Frequency response functions
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-151326 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.05.077 (DOI)000340688200008 ()2-s2.0-84902202910 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140918

Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-09-18 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
6. Non-Contact Excitation of Fundamental Resonance Frequencies of an Asphalt Concrete Specimen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-Contact Excitation of Fundamental Resonance Frequencies of an Asphalt Concrete Specimen
2015 (English)In: AIP Conference Proceedings, 2015, Vol. 1650, 1401-1408 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Impact hammer and non-contact speaker excitation were applied to an asphalt concrete, a PVC-U and a concrete specimen to measure the fundamental longitudinal resonance frequency at different strain levels. The impact and the non-contact excitation methods resulted in similar resonance frequencies for the undamaged asphalt concrete and for the PVC-U specimen. However, the two excitation approaches gave different results for the concrete specimen, which was shown to have a nonlinear response to increasing strain levels. A reduction and a following recovery of the resonance frequency of the asphalt concrete were shown after the specimen was exposed to a small amount of damage. However, no fast nonlinear dynamics were observed for the asphalt concrete through the speaker measurements.

Series
AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN 0094-243X ; 1650
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155905 (URN)000354938100166 ()978-0-7354-1292-7 (ISBN)
Conference
41th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Boise, USA
Note

QC 20141117

Available from: 2014-11-14 Created: 2014-11-14 Last updated: 2015-08-18Bibliographically approved

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