Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Costs and benefits associated with Arctic marine oil spill prevention
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7840-9189
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
Show others and affiliations
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-156036OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-156036DiVA: diva2:764180
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-11-18 Created: 2014-11-18 Last updated: 2016-10-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Valuing ecosystem services - linking ecology and policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Valuing ecosystem services - linking ecology and policy
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ecosystem services constitute a precondition for human welfare and survival. This concept has also become increasingly popular among both scientists and policymakers. Several initiatives have been taken to identify and value ecosystem services. Several services are threatened, and it has been concluded that in order to better manage ecosystem services they need to be further investigated and valued. By measuring them using a common metric—monetary value—they can be more easily compared and included in decision-making tools. This thesis contributes to this goal by presenting values for several ecosystem services and also including them in decision-making tools.

Starting with a discussion of the concept of ecosystem services, this thesis aims to present values for certain ecosystem services and to illustrate the use of these values in systems-analysis tools such as cost-benefit analyses (CBA) and a weighting set. Links between ecology, economics and policy are discussed within a broader framework of ecosystem services. Five papers are included, in which two contingent valuation studies (CV) have been used to find values for different ecosystem services. One valuation study is focused on the effects from tributyltin (TBT) in Swedish marine waters. In addition, a quantitative assessment framework has been developed in order to simplify analysis of environmental status, progress in environmental surveillance and the relevance of different measures. It is suggested that the framework should also be used when assessing the impacts of other substances affecting the environment. The second valuation study investigates the risk of an oil spill in northern Norway. The results have been included in two CBAs and a weighting set. The first CBA compares costs for remediation of polluted sediments, caused by TBT, with the benefits of reducing TBT levels. The second CBA compares costs and benefits for reducing the probability of an oil spill. The weighting set includes monetary values on a number of impact categories where marine toxicity is based on the valuation study on TBT.  One study also examines the inclusion of environmental costs in life cycle costing (LCC) in different sectors in Sweden.

Results show that respondents consider ecosystem values to be important. The values of Swedish marine waters and coastal areas outside Lofoten-Vesterålen in Norway have been identified and quantified in terms of biodiversity, habitat, recreation and scenery. In the Norwegian case, an ongoing debate on the issue of oil and gas exploration has had an impact on the number of protest bids found in the study.

Based on the cost and benefits of limiting impacts on ecosystem services derived from the valuation studies, CBAs show that the suggested measures are most likely beneficial for society, and the results contribute to policy recommendations. A weighting set has been updated with new values through value transfer. The weighting set is compatible with LCA. The final study shows that companies and public organisations use environmental costs (internal and external) in a limited manner.

In this thesis the ecosystem service concept is used both as an introduction and a guiding thread for the reader, as a way to frame the studies undertaken. The concept of ecosystem services can be useful, as it emphasises the importance of the services to humans. By finding and presenting values of ecosystem services, such services are more easily incorporated into decision-making.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. 41 p.
Series
TRITA-FMS-PHD, 2014:02
Keyword
Contingent valuation; Cost-benefit analysis, Ecosystem services; Ecotoxicity; External costs; Life cycle costing; Monetary weighting; Non-market valuation; Oil spill
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155878 (URN)978-91-7595-364-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-12, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20141121

Available from: 2014-11-21 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2014-11-21Bibliographically approved
2. The monetary value of marine environmental change
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The monetary value of marine environmental change
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The marine ecosystems are fundamental for human welfare. A number of current environmental pressures need attention, and the formulation of management strategies requires information from a variety of analytical dimensions. The linkage between environmental change and resulting implications for human welfare is one such dimension.

This thesis presents studies on welfare implications from hypothetical future policies which improve the state of the marine environment. The method for these studies is economic valuation. The studied scenarios concern eutrophication in the Baltic Sea (including the Kattegat) and oil spill risk from shipping in the Lofoten-Vesterålen area in the Arctic Barents Sea. The thesis shows that the economic benefits from undertaking policies to improve or protect the marine environment in these cases are substantial and exceed the costs of taking measures.

In addition to providing new monetary estimates, the thesis also provides new insights concerning 1) what type of scenario to use when valuing an environmental improvement and 2) whether there may exist trade-offs between precision in estimates and the level of ambition with respect to survey instrument complexity and econometric models when conducting valuation studies. The findings suggest an end of an era for studies in which the environmental change is unspecified or based on a single environmental indicator while the actual consequences of the suggested measures are more multifaceted. In contrast, relevant scenarios to study are well-specified and holistic. The thesis further reveals that it might not always be worth the effort to go for the most advanced scenario presentation or statistically best-fitting model specifications. This is something that needs to be further discussed among practitioners in order to allocate valuation resources wisely and not waste resources on unnecessarily elegant valuation studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 85 p.
Series
TRITA-INFRA-FMS-PHD, 2016:06
Keyword
Contingent valuation, choice experiment, benefits transfer, cost-benefit analysis, ecosystem services, eutrophication, oil spills, Baltic Sea, Arctic
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193727 (URN)978-91-7729-148-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-08, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Sing-Sing, våningsplan 2, KTH Campus, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20161011

Available from: 2016-10-11 Created: 2016-10-10 Last updated: 2016-10-11Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Noring, MariaHasselström, LinusHåkansson, Cecilia
By organisation
Environmental Strategies Research (fms)

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 61 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf