Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Screening of working fluids for the ejector refrigeration system
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6139-4400
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9902-2087
2014 (English)In: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 47, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For an ejector refrigeration system, the working fluid significantly influences the ejector behavior and system performance as well as ejector design. There are three categories of working fluids: wet fluids, dry fluids and isentropic fluids. Four wet fluids (R134a, R152a, R290 and R430A), four dry fluids (R245fa, R600, R600a and R1234ze) and one isentropic fluid (R436B) are selected in the paper. Special consideration is paid to the superheat of the ejector primary flow. This superheat is needed not only for wet fluids, but also for dry fluids and isentropic fluids at some cases, to eliminate droplets inside the ejector. A minimum superheat is found, and it is dependent on the used working fluid and the operating temperatures as well as the ejector nozzle efficiency. The comparison among these nine candidates indicates that R600 is a good candidate for the ejector refrigeration system due to a relatively high COP and its low environmental impact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 47, 1-14 p.
Keyword [en]
Efficiency, Ejector, Performance, Refrigeration, Working fluids
National Category
Energy Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-156069DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2014.07.016ISI: 000347593400002ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84908316810OAI: diva2:764509

QC 20141202

Available from: 2014-11-19 Created: 2014-11-19 Last updated: 2015-02-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Investigation of Vapor Ejectors in Heat Driven Ejector Refrigeration Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of Vapor Ejectors in Heat Driven Ejector Refrigeration Systems
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Refrigeration systems, air-conditioning units and heat pumps have been recognized as indispensable machines in human life, and are used for e.g. food storage, provision of thermal comfort. These machines are dominated by the vapor compression refrigeration system and consume a large percentage of world-wide electricity output. Moreover, CO2 emissions related to the heating and cooling processes contribute significantly to the total amount of CO2 emission from energy use. The ejector refrigeration system (ERS) has been considered as a quite interesting system that can be driven by sustainable and renewable thermal energy, like solar energy, and low-grade waste heat, consequently, reducing the electricity use. The system has some other remarkable merits, such as being simple and reliable, having low initial and running cost with long lifetime, and providing the possibility of using environmentally-friendly refrigerants, which make it very attractive. The ERS has received extensive attention theoretically and experimentally.

This thesis describes in-depth investigations of vapor ejectors in the ERS to discover more details. An ejector model is proposed to determine the system performance and obtain the required area ratio of the ejector by introducing three ejector efficiencies. Based on this ejector model, the characteristics of the vapor ejector and the ERS are investigated from different perspectives.

The working fluid significantly influences the ejector behavior and system performance as well as the ejector design. No perfect working fluid that satisfies all the criteria of the ERS can be found. The performance of nine refrigerants has been parametrically compared in the ERS. Based on the slope of the vapor saturation curve in a T-s diagram, the working fluids can be divided into three categories: wet, dry and isentropic. A wet fluid has a negative slope of the vapor saturation curve in the T-s diagram. An isentropic expansion process from a saturated vapor state will make the state after the expansion to fall inside the liquid-vapor area of the T-s diagram which will result in droplet formation. Generally, an isentropic expansion for a dry fluid will not occur inside the liquid-vapor area, and consequently no droplets will form. An isentropic fluid has a vertical slope of the vapor saturation curve in the T-s diagram and an isentropic expansion process will hence follow the vapor saturation curve in the T-s diagram, ideally without any droplet formation. However, when the saturation condition is close to the critical point, it is possible that the isentropic expansion process of a dry fluid and an isentropic fluid occurs inside the liquid-vapor area of the T-s diagram, resulting in formation of droplets. In order to avoid droplet formation during the expansion, a minimum required superheat of the primary flow has been introduced before the nozzle inlet. Results show that the dry fluids have generally better performance than the wet fluids and the isentropic fluid. Hence the thesis mostly focuses on the features of vapor ejectors and the ERS using dry fluids.

Exergy analysis has been proven to be very useful to identify the location, magnitude, and sources of exergy destruction and exergy loss, and to determine the possibilities of system performance improvement. This method is applied to the ejector and the ERS. The ejector parameters are closely interacting. The operating condition and the ejector area ratio have a great impact on the ejector overall efficiency and system COP. The ejector efficiencies are sensitive to the operating conditions, and they significantly influence the system performance. A so-called advanced exergy analysis is adopted to quantify the interactions among the ERS components and to evaluate the realistic potential of improvement. The results indicate that, at the studied operating condition, the ejector should have the highest priority to be improved, followed by the condenser, and then the generator.

Thermoeconomics, which combines the thermodynamic analysis and economic principles, is applied to reveal new terms of interest of the ERS. The economic costs of the brine side fluids (fluids that supply heat to the generator and evaporator and remove heat from the condenser) play very essential roles in the thermoeconomic optimization of the ERS. Depending on different economic conditions, the system improvement from a thermodynamic point of view could be quite different from the thermoeconomic optimization. The ERS is economically sound when using free heat sources and heat sink.

An ejector test bench has been built to test the entrainment ratio of different ejectors. Although the experiments do not achieve the desired results, they could still be discussed. The insignificant effect of the superheat of the secondary flow found in the theoretical study is validated. The assumption of neglecting the velocities at the ejector inlets and outlet are confirmed. The quantification of the ejector efficiencies shows that they largely depend on the operating conditions and the ejector dimensions. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xii, 96 p.
TRITA-REFR, ISSN 1102-0245 ; 14:04
vEjector Refrigeration System, Ejector, Efficiency, Performance, Exergy Analysis, Experiment.
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-156070 (URN)978-91-7595-387-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-16, K2, Teknikringen 28, KTH, Stockholm, 12:00 (English)

QC 20141102

Available from: 2014-12-02 Created: 2014-11-19 Last updated: 2014-12-02Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Chen, JianyongHavtun, HansPalm, Björn
By organisation
Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration
In the same journal
International journal of refrigeration
Energy Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 99 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link