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Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8199-5510
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0675-974X
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4331-6940
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2014 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 14, 143113- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photovoltaic material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 105, no 14, 143113- p.
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Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-156990DOI: 10.1063/1.4897966ISI: 000344343900057Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84908006009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-156990DiVA: diva2:769072
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20141205

Available from: 2014-12-05 Created: 2014-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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Borgani, RiccardoForchheimer, DanielThorén, Per-AndersHaviland, David B.

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