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Black Dross: Processing Salt Removal from Black Dross by Thermal Treatment
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Northern Research Institute, Norway.
2014 (English)In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 66, no 11, 2243-2252 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The salt removal from black dross by thermal treatment has experimentally been studied under different conditions in both a stationary resistance furnace and in a laboratory scale rotary furnace. The experiments were designed based on partial pressure calculations using the Thermo-Calc software (Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden). The salt removal efficiency was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses, and the optimum conditions for treatment established, i.e., temperature, gas flow rate, holding time, rotation rate, and sample size. The overall degree of chloride removal was established to increase as a function of time and temperature, as well as by reduced pressure. Under atmospheric pressure, the highest degree of chloride removal from a 20 g sample was obtained after 10 h at 1523 K resulting in a 98% removal and a final chloride content of 0.3 wt.% in the residue. Under reduced pressure, the chloride concentrate was lowered to 0.2 wt.% after thermal treatment of a 20 g sample at 1473 K for 8 h. In the case of 200 g samples treated in a rotary furnace, the chloride concentrate was 2.5 wt.% after 14 h at 1523 K, representing a removal of 87%. Below 0.3 wt.% chloride content, the material is deemed a nonhazardous waste.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 66, no 11, 2243-2252 p.
Keyword [en]
Aluminum Dross, Cake, Management
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157607DOI: 10.1007/s11837-014-1178-6ISI: 000344618900016Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84925483060OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-157607DiVA: diva2:771176
Note

QC 20141212

Available from: 2014-12-12 Created: 2014-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sustainable Aluminum and Iron Production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable Aluminum and Iron Production
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aluminium recycling requires 95% less energy than primary production with no loss of quality. The Black Dross (BD) produced during secondary aluminium production contains high amounts of water-soluble compounds, therefore it is considered as a toxic waste. In the present work, salt removal from BD by thermal treatment has been investigated in laboratory scale. The optimum conditions for treatment were established, i.e., temperature, gas flow rate, holding time, rotation rate, and sample size. The overall degree of chloride removal was established to increase as a function of time and temperature. Even Pretreated Black Dross (PBD) was evaluated as a possible raw material for the production of a calcium aluminate-based ladle-fluxing agent to be used in the steel industry. The effects of different process parameters on the properties of the produced flux were experimentally investigated, i.e. CaO/Al2O3 ratio, temperature, holding time, and cooling media. The utilization of PBD as the alumina source during the production of a calcium aluminate fluxing agent shows promising results. The iron/steel industry is responsible for 9% of anthropogenic energy and process CO2 emissions. It is believed that the only way to a long-term reduction of the CO2 emissions from the iron/steel industry is commercialization of alternative processes such as Direct Reduction (DR) of iron oxide. Detailed knowledge of the kinetics of the reduction reactions is, however, a prerequisite for the design and optimization of the DR process. To obtain a better understanding of the reduction kinetics, a model was developed step-by-step, from a single pellet to a fixed bed with many pellets. The equations were solved using the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics®. The final model considers the reaction rate and mass transfer inside the pellet, as well as the mass transfers and heat transfer in the fixed bed. All the models were verified against experimental results, and where found to describe the results in a satisfying way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 84 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2017:3
Keyword
Sustainability, Optimization, Black Dross, Salt removal, Steel flux agent, Waste processing, Greenhouse gases, Direct reduction, COMSOL Multiphysics®
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196547 (URN)978-91-7729-214-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-01-09, F3, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20161128

Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-15 Last updated: 2016-11-28Bibliographically approved

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