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Probabilistic design of dry deep mixing using an observational approach
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9615-4861
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
2015 (English)In: Ground Improvement, ISSN 1365-781X, E-ISSN 1751-7621, Vol. 168, no 4, 300-311 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The evaluation of material parameters for design should consider the spatial variability of measured parameters, the extent and type of tests, and the type and size of the current mechanical system. This is stated in Eurocode 7; however, there is very little guidance as to how this is to be done in practice. The strength and deformation properties of dry deep mixing columns are subject to high variability, and it is difficult to estimate these parameters in advance. Owing to this high variability, probabilistic analyses are considered useful for the design and quality assessment decision procedure. This paper presents a procedure, based on probabilistic analysis, which is a combination of design by calculation and the observational method. The procedure renders the possibility to update acceptance criteria based on measurements during construction, and the methodology rewards the development of the mixing process and increased testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ICE Publishing , 2015. Vol. 168, no 4, 300-311 p.
Keyword [en]
design methods & aids, quality control, statistical analysis
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157737DOI: 10.1680/grim.14.00011ISI: 000370554100006OAI: diva2:771459

QC 20150113. QC 20160318

Available from: 2014-12-13 Created: 2014-12-13 Last updated: 2016-03-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aspects of probabalistic serviceability limit state design of dry deep mixing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects of probabalistic serviceability limit state design of dry deep mixing
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An expanding population and increased need for infrastructure increasingly necessitate construction on surfaces with poor soil conditions. To facilitate the construction of buildings, roads and railroads in areas with poor soil conditions, these areas are often improved by means of foundation engineering. Constructions that are fairly limited in scope are often founded on shallow or deep foundations. However, these methods are relatively expensive and thus not applicable for large-scale constructions like roads and railroads. A cost-effective way to deal with poor soil conditions is to use ground improvement. This thesis deals with a ground improvement method called deep mixing (DD)using lime-cement columns.

Lime-cement columns are manufactured by pushing a mechanical mixing tool to the desired depth, with the tool then rotated and retracted while a lime-cement binder is distributed into soil, forming lime-cement columns. Because of the complex mixing process and inherent soil variability, soil improved by DD shows high variability with respect to strength and deformation properties. Due to this high variability, it is difficult to predict the properties in advance; it is therefore important to verify the properties after installation. In Sweden, this is normally done using the column penetration test (KKK) method.

Current design praxis considers evaluated mean values in the design, and the effect of variability and uncertainties is dealt with by using a sufficiently high total factor of safety. A more rational approach for dealing with the effect of variability and uncertainties on the reliability of a mechanical system is to include them as parameters in the design model. This can be done by using reliability-based design (RRR). A major incentive for using 𝑅𝑅𝑅 is that lower variability in design properties produces higher design values. This is important since it encourages contractors to improve their manufacturing methodologies because 𝑅𝑅𝑅 allows more homogenous columns to be assigned higher design values. Reliability-based design is also in line with Eurocode 7, which states that the selection of the characteristic values for geotechnical parameters shall take the variability of the measured property values into account.

The first part of this doctoral thesis deals with test methods and quantification of the strength variability of soil improved by lime-cement columns. Tip resistances from three different test sites using three different penetration test methods – the cone penetration test, the column penetration test and the total-sounding test – are analysed and quantified in terms of means, variances and scale of fluctuations. The second part introduces RRR in serviceability limit state (SSS) design, using First Order Reliability Methods (FFFF) and Monte-Carlo simulations.

Summarizing the most important findings and conclusions from this study:

  •  The scale of fluctuation was estimated to be 0.2-0.7 m and 0-3 m in the vertical and horizontal direction, respectively.
  •  The relation between cone tip resistances measured using the cone penetration test and column penetration test does not correspond to the cone factors proposed in previous studies and in the Swedish Design Guidelines.
  •  The agreement between the column penetration test and total-sounding test was found to be “good enough”. It is therefore suggested that the total-sounding test be used as a complement to the column penetration test in evaluating the average strength properties of a group of medium- and high-strength lime-cement columns.
  • Reliability-based design is a rational approach to incorporate strength and deformation parameter variability with an SSS design.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xii, 48 p.
TRITA-JOB PHD, ISSN 1650-9501 ; 1019
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168596 (URN)
Public defence
2015-06-10, Sal B1, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)

QC 20150605

Available from: 2015-06-05 Created: 2015-06-05 Last updated: 2016-07-05Bibliographically approved

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