Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Corrosion-included metal runoff from external constructions and its environmental interaction: a combined field and laboratory investigation of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni for risk assessment
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The 1990s has seen an increased awareness of possible environmental effects of corrosion-induced metal release from outdoor constructions. Considerable efforts have been initiated to perform critical assessments of possible risks of selected metals. Gaps of knowledge have been identified and research investigations started. This doctoral thesis is the result of an interdisciplinary research effort in which scientific insight into corrosion, soil chemistry and ecotoxicology has been integrated. The work comprises atmospheric exposure of pure metals and commercial materials for outdoor use. The focus is on release of four metals, copper, zinc, chromium and nickel. Their chemical speciation and bioavailable fraction in metal runoff were determined, both at the release moment and after environmental interaction with, e.g., soil and limestone. Total metal concentrations in runoff are influenced both by material properties (e.g., corrosion product solubility, and specific surface area) and by exposure parameters (e.g., rain volume, intensity, contact time and pollutants). Long-term runoff rates of copper, zinc, chromium and nickel were based on exposures (4-8 years) at standardized conditions (45o inclination facing south) in Stockholm, Sweden. Runoff rates for pure copper range from 1.2 to 1.5 g m-2 yr-1, depending on year. At the copper release moment the potential environmental effect was evaluated using 72 hours growth inhibition test with the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata. This resulted in a mean value of 15 μg L-1 causing a 50% growth reduction (EC50). Long-term runoff rates for pure zinc range from 1.9 to 2.5 g m-2 yr-1. A considerable variation in average annual runoff rates (0.07-2.5 mg zinc m2yr-1) was observed between different investigated commercial zinc-based materials. An average 72 hour (EC50) value of 69 μg L-1 towards Raphidocelis subcapitata was found for runoff water from zinc-based materials. Long-term runoff rates from stainless steel of grade 304 and 316 range from 0.23 to 0.30 chromium and 0.28 to 0.52 nickel mg m-2 yr-1, with corresponding concentrations in the runoff at the release moment far below reported ecotoxic concentrations for chromium and nickel.

Two predictive runoff rate models were successfully developed for transforming copper runoff rate data from Stockholm to other exposure sites. One model is based on rain pH, yearly precipitation and building geometry, and the other on average annual SO2 concentration, yearly precipitation and building geometry. In addition to total metal concentration, adequate effect assessments also require information on chemical speciation of the released metal and its bioavailability. Metal chemical speciation in runoff was determined experimentally through an ion selective electrode (for copper), and also modelled with the Windermere Humic Aquatic model (WHAM (V)). Bioavailability assessments were generated through bioassay tests. At the moment of metal release, all methods show that the majority (60-99%) of the metal in runoff exists in its most bioavailable form, the hydrated metal ion. During subsequent environmental entry the metal undergoes major reductions in concentration and bioavailability. This was evidenced by model column studies of the capacity of soil to retain and immobilize the metal in runoff water, and by model and field column studies of the capacity of limestone to retain copper. The retention by soil of all metals investigated is very high (96-99.8%) until each materials retention capacity is reached. Limestone also exhibits a substantial capacity (5- 47%) to retain copper. The capacity is significantly increased by increased amount and decreased fraction of limestone particles.

Any outer or inner surface with significant retention ability and with low possibility of subsequent mobilization is an excellent candidate for neutralizing metal release and its potential ecotoxic effects. This was demonstrated through computer modelling (WHAM(V)) and biosensor tests (Biomet™), which showed the most bioavailable and ecotoxic metal species to be reduced during passage through soil and limestone. Predictions based on the computer model HYDRUS-1D suggest a time-period of between 4 and 8000 years, depending on runoff water and soil characteristics, before saturation in soil retention capacity of copper and zinc is reached. A significant fraction of the retained metal is extractable towards the strong complexing agent EDTA, indicating possible future mobilisation. It is also available for plant uptake, as shown by DGT- (Diffuse Gradients in Thin films-) analysis of copper and zinc in soil.

The data generated, presented and discussed are all believed to be important for risk assessment work related to corrosion-induced metal release from outdoor constructions. As evidenced from this doctoral thesis, such work requires a complete set of data on annual runoff rates, concentrations, chemical speciation and bioavailability and its changes during environmental entry, together with knowledge on, e.g., type of material, service life of coating, building geometry, and dewatering system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , 106 p.
Series
KTH/MSE, 2005:13
Keyword [en]
Environmental technology, Atmospheric corrosion, metal runoff, metal dispersion, soil, limestone, retention
Keyword [sv]
Miljöteknik
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175ISBN: 91-7178-004-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-175DiVA: diva2:7732
Public defence
2005-04-29, Kollegiesalen, KTH, Valhallavägen 79, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100901Available from: 2005-04-25 Created: 2005-04-25 Last updated: 2010-09-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Release rates of chromium and nickel from 304 and 316 stainless steel during urban atmospheric exposure: a combined field and laboratory study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Release rates of chromium and nickel from 304 and 316 stainless steel during urban atmospheric exposure: a combined field and laboratory study
2002 (English)In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 44, no 10, 2303-2319 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Release rates of chromium and nickel from pickled and skin passed 304 and 316 stainless steel have been determined during a one-year field exposure in an urban environment (Stockholm, Sweden) and through complementary exposures in artificial rain. Measured annual release rates from 304 stainless steel are 0.25-0.3 mg Cr/m(2) and 0.3-0.4 mgNi/m(2), and slightly higher from 316 stainless steel, 0.35-0.4 mgCr/m(2) and 0.7-0.8 mgNi/m(2). The release rates decrease as the rain pH increases and exhibit no direct influence by rain intensity. Variations in release rates are thought to be a result of a non-uniformly attack.

Keyword
Atmospheric corrosion, Chromium, Field study, Laboratory study, Nickel, Release rate, Chromium, Cloud seeding, Nickel, Stainless steel, Release rate, Corrosion, atmospheric corrosion, chromium, nickel, pH, rain, stainless steel
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10707 (URN)10.1016/S0010-938X(02)00054-9 (DOI)000176482100011 ()
Note
QC 20100901Available from: 2009-07-14 Created: 2009-07-14 Last updated: 2010-09-01Bibliographically approved
2. Corrosion-induced release and environmental interaction of chromium, nickel and iron from stainless steel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrosion-induced release and environmental interaction of chromium, nickel and iron from stainless steel
2006 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 170, no 1-4, 17-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A cross-disciplinary research project has been implemented because of increased awareness of the potential environmental effects caused by dispersion of metals from external applications into the environment. The work comprises a 4-year (1998-2002) field exposure of grades 304 and 316 stainless steels, and a laboratory percolation study simulating 20-25 years of chromium and nickel containing runoff water interactions with soil. Total metal annual release rates varied between 0.2 and 0.7 mg m(-2) yr(-1) for Cr, between 0.1 and 0.8 mg m(-2) yr(-1) for Ni and between 10 and 200 mg m(-2) yr(-1) for Fe. Most Cr and Ni is present in an ionic form as a result of the limited presence of organic matter at the immediate release situation. Metal ion concentrations in the runoff water are far below reported ecotoxic concentrations. Studies of the environmental interaction between runoff water from stainless steel and soil show the majority of released Cr and Ni to be retained and their concentrations in percolation water to be very low (0.5-1 mu g L-1 and 1-5.5 mu g L-1 for Cr and Ni, respectively). Speciation calculations showed Cr to be primarily complexed to dissolved organic carbon while Ni also was present in an ionic form in the solution phase. Soil extractions showed Cr and Ni to be very strongly retained within the soil.

Keyword
Atmospheric corrosion, Chemical speciation, Ecotoxicity, Environmental risk assessment, Metal release, Soil retention, Stainless steel, Chromium, Corrosion, Environmental impact, Iron, Nickel, Organic compounds, Percolation (fluids), Runoff, Stainless steel, Suspensions (fluids), Atmospheric corrosions, Chemical speciations, Ecotoxicity, Environmental risk assessments, Metal release, Soil retentions, Soil pollution, chromium, iron, metal ion, nickel, organic matter, runoff, stainless steel, Chromium, Corrosion, Environmental impact, Iron, Nickel, Organic compounds, Percolation (fluids), Runoff, Soil pollution, Stainless steel, Suspensions (fluids), chromium, corrosion, iron, nickel, runoff, speciation (chemistry), article, corrosion, ecotoxicity, environmental factor, risk assessment, soil pollution
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5052 (URN)10.1007/s11270-006-2238-5 (DOI)000236514800003 ()2-s2.0-33645516928 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100901. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100901.Available from: 2005-04-25 Created: 2005-04-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Environmental effects of zinc runoff from roofing materials: a new multidisciplinary approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental effects of zinc runoff from roofing materials: a new multidisciplinary approach
2002 (English)In: Outdoor Atmospheric Corrosion / [ed] Townsend HE, 2002, Vol. 1421, 200-215 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this work is to study changes in concentration and bioavailability of zinc-containing runoff water, released from roofing materials, upon passage through soil. The experimental approach is based on simulating the interaction between zinc in artificial runoff water and soil in a column system.

The total zinc concentration of runoff was substantially reduced when passing through the soil and suggests marked zinc retention, During a constant flow and supply of zinc into the soil, equivalent to three and a half years of precipitation in Stockholm, a zinc retention capacity of approximately 99% was recorded, Not only the total concentration, but also the bio-available portion of the total zinc concentration was reduced after passage through soil, Most of the retained zinc was located in top 3 cm of the soil core and suggests the total capacity for zinc retention of the investigated soil to be about 140 years per kilogram soil in an isolated system in real systems, changes of temperature, pH, microbial activity, weathering of minerals and deposition of new organic material must be considered.

The results form part of the effect assessment, preceding future risk assessment of the environmental effects of dispersed zinc.

Series
American Society For Testing And Materials Special Technical Publication, ISSN 1040-1695 ; 1421
Keyword
Atmospheric corrosion, Metal retention, Runoff rate, Soil, Zinc, Zinc ion, Atmospheric corrosion, Computer simulation, Environmental impact, pH effects, Precipitation (meteorology), Risk assessment, Runoff, Soils, Thermal effects, Water, Weathering, Roofing materials, Zinc runoff, Zinc
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5053 (URN)000180883000016 ()0-8031-2896-7 (ISBN)
Conference
Symposium on Outdoor Atmospheric Corrosion, PHOENIX, AZ, MAY 08-09, 2001
Note
QC 20100901. Uppdaterad från Artikel i tidskrift till Konferensbidrag 20100901.Available from: 2005-04-25 Created: 2005-04-25 Last updated: 2010-09-01Bibliographically approved
4. Occurrence and fate of corrosion-induced zinc in runoff water from external structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence and fate of corrosion-induced zinc in runoff water from external structures
2006 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 2-3, 908-923 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper comprises data from an extensive cross-disciplinary research project aiming to elucidate the environmental fate of corrosion-induced zinc release from external structures. It includes an exposure assessment that provide long-term runoff rates, concentrations and chemical speciation of zinc, from 14 zinc-based materials exposed during 5 years in Stockholm, Sweden, and an effect assessment including bioavailability and ecotoxicity measurements, both at the immediate release situation and after soil interaction.Runoff rates of total zinc ranged from 0.07 to 2.5g Znm(-2) yr(-1) with zinc primarily released as the free ion for all materials investigated. The average effect concentration, causing a 50% growth reduction after 72h to the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, was at the immediate release situation 69 mu g ZnL-1. Upon interaction of runoff water with soil, which simulated 18 to 34years of exposure, the total zinc concentration was significantly reduced, from milligram per litre to microgram per litre levels. Simultaneously, the most bioavailable fraction of zinc in runoff, the hydrated zinc(II)-ion, decreased from more than 95% to about 30%. The major fraction, 98-99%, of the introduced total zinc concentration in the runoff water was retained within the soil. As long as the soil retention capacity was not reached, this resulted in zinc concentrations in the percolate water transported through the soil layer, close to background values and below growth inhibition concentrations for the green algae investigated. Zinc retained in soil was to a large extent (85-99.9%) extractable with EDTA, and available for plant uptake after 5 to 7months of ageing.

Keyword
Atmospheric corrosion, Metal retention, Risk assessment, Runoff rate, Soil, Speciation, Zinc, Atmospheric corrosion, Flow of water, Project management, Risk assessment, Runoff, Soils, Ecotoxicity, Metal retentions, Runoff rates, Speciation, Zinc, edetic acid, runoff, zinc, assessment method, bioavailability, corrosion, ecotoxicology, green alga, growth rate, inhibition, research work, runoff, soil, zinc, article, bioavailability, concentration (parameters), corrosion, ecotoxicity, environmental impact assessment, exposure variable, green alga, nonhuman, priority journal, reduction, soil, statistical analysis, water pollution, water pollution indicator, water transport, Algae, Green, Environmental Monitoring, Microscopy, Electron, Scanning, Models, Theoretical, Rain, Soil, Sweden, Water Movements, Water Pollutants, Chemical, Zinc
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5054 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.01.008 (DOI)000240042700034 ()2-s2.0-33746706958 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100901. Tidigare titel: Occurrence and environmental fate of corrosion-induced zinc in runoff water from external structures. Titel ändrad och uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100901.Available from: 2005-04-25 Created: 2005-04-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Immobilization of copper in runoff water from roofing materials by limestone, soil and concrete
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immobilization of copper in runoff water from roofing materials by limestone, soil and concrete
2002 (English)In: 15th Internatioal Corrosion Conference: Granada, Spain, 2002Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5055 (URN)
Note
QC 20100901Available from: 2005-04-25 Created: 2005-04-25 Last updated: 2010-09-01Bibliographically approved
6. The capacity of limestone to immobilize copper in runoff water: a laboratory investigation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The capacity of limestone to immobilize copper in runoff water: a laboratory investigation
2002 (English)In: 15th International Corrosion Conference: Granada, Spain, 2002Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5056 (URN)
Note
QC 20100901Available from: 2005-04-25 Created: 2005-04-25 Last updated: 2010-09-01Bibliographically approved
7. Predictive models of copper runoff from external structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictive models of copper runoff from external structures
2004 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 6, no 8, 704-712 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A general model for annual runoff rate predictions of total copper from naturally patinated copper on buildings at specific urban or rural sites of low chloride influence has been deduced from laboratory and field data. All parameters within the model have a physical meaning and include the average annual rain acidity ( pH), the annual rain quantity and the geometry of a building in terms of surface inclination. In 70% of all reported annual runoff rates, the predicted values are within 30% from the observed values.

The individual and interactive effect of rain composition in terms of pH, sulfate, chloride and nitrate concentration was investigated in immersion experiments in artificial rain water representative of urban and rural sites of Europe. The results show pH to have a dominating effect on patina dissolution, nitrate to have a small inhibiting effect, whereas no significant effect was seen for chloride and sulfate.

In case pH data are not available, a model has been statistically deduced from field data by considering SO2 as influencing parameter, rather than pH. The predictability with the SO2 model is not as good as with the pH model i.e. the pH model should preferentially be used since it is a better predictor and all parameters within the model can be physically explained.

Keyword
chloride, copper, nitrate, rain, sulfate, sulfur dioxide, water, acidity, article, building, chemical composition, chemical model, chemical parameters, chemical structure, concentration (parameters), dissolution, Europe, geometry, immersion, laboratory, observation, prediction, priority journal, rural area, surface property, urban area, Chlorides, Copper, Corrosion, Europe, Facility Design and Construction, Forecasting, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Models, Theoretical, Nitrates, Rain, Sulfates, Sulfur Dioxide, Water Pollutants, Chemical
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5057 (URN)10.1039/b402223h (DOI)000223065700010 ()2-s2.0-4344594042 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100901Available from: 2005-04-25 Created: 2005-04-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
8. Long-term corrosion-induced copper runoff from natural and artificial patina and its environmental impact
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term corrosion-induced copper runoff from natural and artificial patina and its environmental impact
2006 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, no 3, 891-898 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The overall objective of this paper is to present an extensive set of data for corrosion-induced copper dispersion and its environmental interaction with solid surfaces in the near vicinity of buildings. Copper dispersion is discussed in terms of total copper flows, copper speciation and bioavailability at the immediate release situation, and its changes during transport from source to recipient. Presented results are based on extensive field exposures (eight years) at an urban site, laboratory investigations of the runoff process, published field data, generated predictive site-specific runoff rate models, and reactivity investigations toward various natural and manmade surfaces, such as those in soil, limestone, and concrete. Emphasis is placed on the interaction of copper-containing runoff water with different soil systems through long-term laboratory column investigations. The fate of copper is discussed in terms of copper retention, copper chemical speciation, breakthrough capacities, and future mobilization based on changes in copper concentrations in the percolate water, computer modeling using the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model, and sequential extractions. The results illustrate that, for scenarios where copper comes in extensive contact with solid surfaces, such as soil and limestone, a large fraction of released copper is retained already in the immediate vicinity of the building. In all, both the total copper concentration in runoff water and its bioavailable part undergo a significant and rapid reduction.

Keyword
Copper, Retention, Risk assessment, Runoff, Soil interaction, Concentration (process), Environmental impact, Risk assessment, Runoff, Soils, Toxicity, Artificial patina, Corrosion induced copper dispersion, Retention, Soil interaction, bioavailabilit, corrosion, environmental impact, runoff, aqueous solution, bioavailability, chemical interaction, computer model, conference paper, corrosion, dispersion, environmental impact, metal recovery, nonhuman, priority journal, solid, species identification, Corrosion, Environment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Pollution, Risk Assessment, Soil Pollutants, Toxicity Tests, Water, Water Movements, Water Pollutants, Chemical
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5058 (URN)10.1897/05-027R.1 (DOI)000235700600032 ()16566176 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-33644646734 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100901. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100901. Conference: Symposium on Risk Assessment of Metals in Soils. Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC. APR 18-22, 2004Available from: 2005-04-25 Created: 2005-04-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
9. Model studies of corrosion induced copper runoff fate in soil
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model studies of corrosion induced copper runoff fate in soil
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, no 3, 683-691 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Laboratory experiments have been performed with 3-cm soil columns simulating the fate of corrosion-induced copper runoff in contact with soil. The investigation simulates approximately 30 years (assuming an infiltration surplus of 25 cm/year) of continuous percolation of copper containing runoff water of a concentration realistic at the immediate release situation (4.8 mg/L) into four soils representative of urban conditions. Two of the three investigated topsoils reached their breakthrough of copper within the simulated time, while the third topsoil did not show a breakthrough. The subsoil reached a breakthrough after approximately 10 years of simulated exposure. To simulate more realistic outdoor scenarios, the laboratory-obtained breakthrough curves were modeled with Hydrus-1D (R) using a Langmuir-Freundlich model to describe copper sorption, the parameters of which were estimated from soil properties (pH, organic carbon content). The model predicts longer breakthrough times with increasing pH and organic content of the soil and with decreasing concentrations of copper and dissolved organic carbon in the runoff water. The time span for copper in runoff water (at concentrations of 0.01-10 mg/L) to reach a soil depth of 50 cm varied between 170 and more than 8,000 years for the predicted field scenarios.

Keyword
Copper, Hydrus-1D, Risk assessment, Runoff, Solute transport, Computer simulation, Mathematical models, pH effects, Risk assessment, Runoff, Hydrus-ID, Solute transport, Soils, organic carbon, runoff, environmental fate, runoff, solute transport, chemical composition, concentration (parameters), conference paper, corrosion, environmental impact, environmental parameters, model, pH, prediction, priority journal, risk assessment, sediment transport, simulation, soil analysis, soil pollution, soil property, Agriculture, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Pollutants, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Rain, Risk, Risk Assessment, Soil, Soil Pollutants, Sweden, Time Factors, Water, Water Movements
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5059 (URN)10.1897/05-026R.1 (DOI)000235700600008 ()16566152 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-33644655215 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100901. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100901. Conference: Symposium on Risk Assessment of Metals in Soils. Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC. APR 18-22, 2004Available from: 2005-04-25 Created: 2005-04-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2929 kB)3771 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2929 kBChecksum MD5
5f87783be6d68f76f77c8f322186e2aea80fe443c083722bc7878ca596b63ce9df3d065e
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bertling, Sofia
By organisation
Materials Science and Engineering
Other Environmental Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 3771 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 2144 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf