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Synthetic fuels from electricity for the Swedish transport sector: comparison of well to wheel energy efficiencies and costs
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8871-2085
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3315-4201
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0635-7372
2015 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, 1875-1880 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Synthetic fuels based on electricity, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) may be necessary to cover the fuel demand in a sustainable transport sector based on renewable energy sources. The aim of this paper is to compare hydrogen, methane, methanol and diesel produced in this way. The main parameters for the analysis are well to wheel energy efficiency and costs, and the fuels are analysed in a Swedish context. The results indicate that methane and diesel could have the potential to be cost competitive in the near term, at least if common incentivesfor renewable transportation fuels are applied. Moreover, that hydrogen is the best option in terms of well to wheel energy efficiency, and that it in the longer term also may be cost competitive to the other fuels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 75, 1875-1880 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158138DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.169ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84947076435OAI: diva2:774733
the 7th International Conference on Applied Energy - ICAE2015, March 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

QC 20150127

Available from: 2014-12-29 Created: 2014-12-29 Last updated: 2015-09-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The role of methane and hydrogen in a fossil-free Swedish transport sector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of methane and hydrogen in a fossil-free Swedish transport sector
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are required to limit the severe risks associated with a changing climate. One measure is to disrupt the fossil-fuel dependency in the transport sector, but it appears difficult and costly in comparison to other measures.

Vehicles and fuels are available, but no single alternative can replace petrol and diesel in all parts of the transport system. None of them are ideal regarding all of the following aspects: vehicle performance, fuel production potential, sustainability, infrastructure, technology development and economy. Instead, several fuels are needed.

In this thesis, the aim is to investigate the role of methane and hydrogen in a fossil- free vehicle fleet in Sweden, and compare them with other fuels in terms of well-to-wheel energy efficiency and economy. Processes for producing methane from biomass, waste streams from pulp mills and electricity are studied with techno-economic methods. Furthermore, well-to-wheel studies and scenarios are used to investigate the fuel chains and the interaction with the energy and transport systems.

Effects of policy instruments on the development of biogas in the Swedish transport sector are also analysed and policy instruments are suggested to increase the use of methane and to introduce hydrogen and fuel cell electric vehicles. The results reveal that tax exemptions and investment support have been and will continue to be important policy instruments, but that effective policy instruments are needed to develop fuelling infrastructure and to support alternative vehicles.

Electricity will be an important transport fuel for several reasons; the electric powertrain enables high energy efficiency and electricity can be produced from various renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, other fuels will be needed as complements to electricity. The results reveal that methane and hydrogen and associated vehicles may be necessary to reach a fossil-free vehicle fleet in Sweden. These fuels have several advantages:

-        The function of the vehicles resembles conventional vehicles but with lower local and global emissions.

-        Methane is a well proven as a transport fuel and hydrogen infrastructure and FCEVs, are commercial or close to commercialisation.

-        They enable high well-to-wheel energy efficiency.

-        They can be produced from renewable electricity and act as energy storage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. 93 p.
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 55
renewable transport fuels, biogas, methane, hydrogen, electrofuels, pyrolysis, well to wheel, transport policy, energy policy
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174018 (URN)978-91-7595-706-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-23, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 09:30 (Swedish)
Energy Systems Programme

QC 20150929

Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-24 Last updated: 2015-09-29Bibliographically approved

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