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Macroalgae as a renewable resource: Extraction and Characterization of the Major Components in Saccharina Latissima
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
2014 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Makroalger som förnyelsebar råvara (English)
Abstract [en]

A fractionation strategy was developed that made it possible to extract alginate, mannitol, laminarin and cellulose under various conditions from the brown algae Saccharina Latissima (previously known as Laminara Saccharina). The algae were harvested on the west coast of Sweden in the late summer of 2013. After extraction, the alginate and mannitol samples were identified and characterized using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The yield of alginate (in its sodium salt form) was estimated to be around 18,5 %, and the yield of mannitol was around 9 %. Mild hydrolysis and 1H NMR was performed on the alginate to estimate the ratio of mannuronic and guluronic acids, i.e. the M/G-ratio. The M/G-ratio was calculated to be around 1 for neutral batches and around 1,1 for batches extracted at low or high pH. Laminarin was identified and characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR, TGA, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and ion chromatography (IC). Approximately 12 % laminarin was extracted. Cellulose was identified and characterized by FT-IR and IC, and the yield was approximately 2,5 to 3,5 %.

A three-level statistical factorial screening of the parameters temperature and pH was also performed using multiple linear regression (MLR) from 6 responses: the alginate, laminarin, cellulose, mannitol and total yield as well as the M/G-ratio. However, the yields of alginate, cellulose and mannitol were not possible to assess due to divergent data points. High temperature (75 °C) and pH 2 or 12 degrades alginate, thus decreasing the yield. The screening of laminarin yield showed that a decrease in pH had a significant positive effect. The screening of total yield indicated a negative effect when temperature was increased from 40 °C to 75 °C. At 3 or 40 °C, the M/G-ratio was significantly lower at neutral pH compared to those at pH 2 or 12. At 75 °C and pH 12, a degradation decreased the M/G-ratio to 0,83.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014.
Keyword [en]
Brown Algae, Algae, Saccharina Latissima, Laminara Saccharina, Renewable Resource, Extraction, Separation, Characterization, Polysaccharides, Saccharides, β-glucans, Alginate, Sodium Alginate, Alginic acid, Hydrolysis, M/G-ratio, Mannitol, D-mannitol, Laminarin, Cellulose, Proton NMR, 1H NMR, 1H FTNMR FT-IR, TGA, SEC, IC, Yield
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158558OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-158558DiVA: diva2:778288
Available from: 2015-01-09 Created: 2015-01-09 Last updated: 2017-08-28Bibliographically approved

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