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Demand responsive resource management for cellular networks: link asymmetry, pricing and multihopping
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Economic affordability of services and infrastructures has rapidly become one of the key issues in the evaluation and design of wireless access systems. The provisioning of high data rates, at an ``affordable'' price, constitutes a serious challenge to the structure and management of current and future wireless networks.

The management of radio resources, Radio Resource Management or RRM for short, has traditionally been benchmarked mostly by technical merits such as throughput (data delivery capability) and Quality of Service (QoS). When comparing different RRM schemes, the scheme that can deliver more bits per Hertz (unit of bandwidth) or per Euro is often assumed the more efficient. From an economic point of view, however, cost efficiency is not equivalent to profitability.

We conjecture that the economic efficiency and profitability can be improved both by better technical efficiency and by better accounting for users' service appreciation and willingness to pay. While we shall, primarily treat the operator's benefit of improved RRM, we will try to improve the RRM by means of being more responsive to the demands of the users. In eight conference and journal papers, we investigate: Provisioning of support for asymmetric traffic, Quality and pricing aware resource management and Creation of forwarding incentive in multihop cellular networks.

We show that implementing support for asymmetric links can improve the efficiency of (service) production in Time Division Duplexing (TDD) mode wireless networks with asymmetric traffic. That is, more traffic can be handled with the same system resources. Compared to Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD), TDD offers more flexible use of spectrum resources. The benefits of TDD and support for asymmetric links are readily available for systems providing high-rate spotty coverage. For systems aiming at full coverage and tight reuse, however, proper measures must be taken to control inter-mobile- and inter-base-station-interference.

We present the MEDUSA model framework for taking users' service appreciation and willingness to pay into account in performance evaluations of wireless networks with elastic traffic. Assuming that user satisfaction depends on both the quality and the price of the service, numerical experiments show that the economic efficiency of an RRM scheme is affected by the pricing scheme. We also introduce the concepts of speculative resource management to exploit traffic elasticity and improve resource utilisation. With speculative admission control, users with good propagation conditions may be admitted to a full system at the expense of a slight degradation of the QoS of some or all users, if the expected total revenue would thereby increase. Results indicate significant revenue gain with speculative admission control. Service perception aware scheduling was evaluated as a means to improve resource utilisation, but yielded only marginal gain compared to a weighted proportional fair scheduler.

For the third area studied in this Thesis, i.e. multihopping in cellular networks, economic efficiency was both the goal and one of the means to achieve it. By means of a resource re-distribution scheme called Resource Delegation we eliminated the bandwidth bottle neck of the relays. We combined Resource Delegation with economic compensation for the energy expenditures of the relays and were able to achieve significantly increased operator revenue with maintained or improved user utility. Assuming that the added complexity of keeping track of reward transactions is negligible, profitability was correspondingly improved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , viii, 90 p.
Series
Trita-S3-RST, ISSN 1400-9137 ; 0509
Keyword [en]
Electrical engineering
Keyword [sv]
Elektroteknik, elektronik och fotonik
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-180DiVA: diva2:7804
Public defence
2005-04-29, Sal C1, Electrum, Isafjordsgatan 22, Kista, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101021Available from: 2005-04-27 Created: 2005-04-27 Last updated: 2010-10-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Dynamic link asymmetry in `bunched' wireless networks.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic link asymmetry in `bunched' wireless networks.
1999 (English)In: Vehicular Technology Conference, 1999. VTC 1999 - Fall. IEEE VTS 50th, 1999, 352-356 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In most future wireless applications an increasing fraction of the total offered traffic is expected to appear in the downlink (fixed-to-mobile) segment of the system. This requirement matches rather poorly with the system design and spectrum allocation for current and future systems which employ symmetric frequency division duplex (FDD). In contrast, TDMA/TDD systems, at least in principle, allow for a more flexible resource allocation by moving the boundary between uplink and downlink time-slots, the switching point. The key problem caused by moving the switching point; is interference between mobiles and base stations. In the paper, some algorithms to select and adapt the switching point in a `bunched' cellular environment are investigated. A simple scheme using a `soft' switching point, is shown to provide a capacity, while not as high as a fully dynamic scheme, still considerably higher than the capacity of a traditional fixed switching point scheme. Further, the `soft' scheme is also adaptive, in the sense that it tracks varying traffic asymmetry ratios.

Keyword
cellular radio, time division multiple access, time division multiplexing
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25405 (URN)10.1109/VETECF.1999.797155 (DOI)
Conference
IEEE VTS 50th, 19 sep 1999 - 22 sep 1999, Amsterdam
Note
QC 20101020Available from: 2010-10-20 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2010-10-21Bibliographically approved
2. Improved TDD resource allocation through inter-mobile interference avoidance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved TDD resource allocation through inter-mobile interference avoidance
2001 (English)In: IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Rhodes, 2001, Vol. 2, no 53ND, 1027-1031 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Time division duplex systems, in a convenient way, facilitate the implementation of asymmetrical links which are required to efficiently handle the increasingly asymmetric traffic offered by current and future wireless applications. If boundaries between uplink and downlink time-slots are not synchronised among cells, e.g. when different asymmetries are required in different cells, Inter-Base station (IB) interference and Inter-Mobile (IM) interference arise. To keep the outage probability at a reasonable level this interference needs to be avoided. In a system with centralised resource allocation, information about IM link gains can be used to estimate IM interference. Measuring all IM link gains is often considered to be an intractable task. Thus, in this paper a simple method to estimate IM link gains and to avoid IM interference is proposed and evaluated. In centralised system, for the critical case of heavier downlink traffic, the new method significantly improves system capacity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rhodes: , 2001
Keyword
Probability, Resource allocation, Telecommunication links, Telecommunication traffic, Inter-base station interference, Inter-mobile interference avoidance, Signal interference
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25408 (URN)
Conference
IEEE VTS 53rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTS SPRING 2001); Rhodes; 6 May 2001 through 9 May 2001
Note
QC 20101020Available from: 2010-10-20 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2010-10-21Bibliographically approved
3. Heterogeneous Link Asymmetry In Tdd Mode Cellular 
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneous Link Asymmetry In Tdd Mode Cellular 
2003 (English)In: Proc. World Wireless Congress 2003, San Francisco, U.S.A. May 2003., 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Time Division Duplex systems provide great flexibility that can be used to implement asymmetrical links. Adverse interference conditions easily arise, however. Especially if different asymmetries are required in neighbouring cells. This paper assesses the performance of TDD mode systems in evironments that require heterogeneous link asymmetry. In particular the Soft Switching Point and Disjoint Base station Set algorithms are considered. Results indicate that gradual asymmetry variations can be handled with almost no performance loss, but random variations result in capacity loss.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25409 (URN)
Conference
World Wireless Congress 2003, 27/5-30/5 2003, San Francisco, U.S.A.
Note
QC 20101020Available from: 2010-10-20 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2010-10-21Bibliographically approved
4. Demand and Pricing Effects on the Radio Resource Allocation of Multimedia Communication Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demand and Pricing Effects on the Radio Resource Allocation of Multimedia Communication Systems
2003 (English)In: Conference Record / IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, IEEE , 2003, Vol. 7, 4116-4121 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Over the years, Radio Resource Management has been benchmarked mostly by its technical merits. For a service provider, however, also economics must be reckoned with. When the financial needs of the provider and the satisfaction of the users are considered, common objectives in radio resource management like maximising throughput or meeting various quality constraints, may no longer be sufficient. We analyse next generation communication systems by including models of economics, presented in the literature, and reasonable considerations to depict the users/provider relationship in a generalised multimedia environment. In particular, we develop a model of users' satisfaction, in which both requested Quality of Service and price paid are taken into account. The model enables us to investigate how resource allocation dynamics affect operator revenues and to derive some useful insights. The Radio Resource Management can be shown to highly depend on economic considerations. The provider's task to determine the best usage of the network capacity is heavily affected by the users' service demand and their reactions to the pricing policy. Thus, the economic scenario needs to be taken into account to efficiently exploit the constrained radio resource.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2003
Keyword
Algorithms, Benchmarking, Code division multiple access, Economics, Functions, Game theory, Multimedia systems, Quality of service, Resource allocation, Pricing policy, Radio resource management, Wireless telecommunication systems
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25411 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOM.2003.1259002 (DOI)000189451400795 ()2-s2.0-0842344390 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference GLOBECOM'03; San Francisco, CA; 1 December 2003 through 5 December 2003
Note

QC 20101020

Available from: 2010-10-20 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2016-04-12Bibliographically approved
5. An Economic Model For The Radio Resource Management In Multimedia Wireless Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Economic Model For The Radio Resource Management In Multimedia Wireless Systems
2004 (English)In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 27, no 11, 1056-1064 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we study the connection between radio resource management (RRM) and economic parameters, whose application in multimedia communication system is a challenging task. In fact, a real network provider has to consider other parameters, besides the common goals of RRM like throughput maximisation or meeting constraints connected with the quality of service. In particular, when the financial needs of the provider and the reaction of the users to prices are taken into account, economics have to be introduced in the analysis. We intend to study multimedia communication systems by including well-known economic models and reasonable considerations in the usual radio resource allocation scenario. To do this, we present a model of users' satisfaction, which considers the effects of both users' request and price paid. In this way, it is possible to investigate the relationship between the radio resource allocation and the provider revenue. Other conclusions can be derived as well, e.g. for the pricing strategy planning or the network dimensioning. Thus, we give analytical insight and numerical results, which highlight that the network management is heavily affected by the economic scenario.

Keyword
network management, pricing, quality-of-service, cellular network, bandwidth allocation, BROAD-BAND NETWORKS
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13003 (URN)10.1016/j.comcom.2004.01.011 (DOI)000221498200003 ()2-s2.0-1942516839 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101020 QC 20111103. AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE 37th Joint Propulsion Conference. SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH. JUL 08-11, 2001 Available from: 2010-05-21 Created: 2010-05-21 Last updated: 2011-11-03Bibliographically approved
6. Base station placement in asymmetric TDD mode systems in a Manhattan environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Base station placement in asymmetric TDD mode systems in a Manhattan environment
2004 (English)In: VTC2004-SPRING: 2004 IEEE 59TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-5, PROCEEDINGS, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2004, 1968-1972 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With Time Division Duplexing (TDD), radio resources can be flexibly divided between uplinks and downlinks. This makes TDD suitable for handling of the increasingly asymmetric traffic generated by data and multimedia services. When asymmetries are different in neighbouring cells, adverse interference conditions can arise however. This paper investigates how the Base Station (BS) placement affects the performance of a TDD mode system with asymmetric links in a Manhattan like environment. In particular, the influence of the BS placement on Inter-Base station Interference (IBI) and InterMobile Interference (IMI) is assessed. Results show that, similar to conventional systems with symmetric traffic, it is preferable to place BSs somewhere between the intersections rather than in the intersections. Though the interference mechanisms are different, the studied asymmetric systems seem to be no more vulnerable to an in-intersections placement than is a symmetric system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NEW YORK: IEEE, 2004
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25413 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2004.1390618 (DOI)000226279400407 ()2-s2.0-15344339083 (Scopus ID)
Conference
59th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Milan, ITALY, MAY 17-19, 2004
Note
QC 20101020Available from: 2010-10-20 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2011-11-02Bibliographically approved
7. Resource Delegation and Rewards to Stimulate Forwarding in Multihip Cellular Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource Delegation and Rewards to Stimulate Forwarding in Multihip Cellular Networks
2005 (English)In: VTC 2005-Spring: 2005 IEEE 61st Vehicular Technology Conference, Proceedings, IEEE , 2005, no 4, 2152-2156 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Multihop cellular networks that base the forwarding process on user terminals are challenged by a lack of forwarding incentive. In this paper 1, we present the novel concept of Resource Delegation which, applied in combination with pricing based rewards, guarantees both the separation of resources between originating transmitters and relays and the economic compensation of the energy investments of the relays. The results show that this strategy leads to the definition of a broad region of prices in which multihopping solutions can achieve the following advantages over classical single-hop architectures: operator's revenues and provided datarates increase significantly, the users' appreciation of the service is enhanced, and the average interference level of the network is lowered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2005
Series
IEEEVTS Vehicular Technology Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038 ; Volume 61, Issue 4
Keyword
Frequency hopping, Resource allocation, Telecommunication repeaters, Transmitters
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7633 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2005.1543715 (DOI)000232179303009 ()2-s2.0-26444596147 (Scopus ID)0-7803-8887-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2005 IEEE 61st Vehicular Technology Conference -VTC 2005 - Spring Stockholm: Paving the Path for a Wireless Future; Stockholm; Sweden; 30 May 2005 through 1 June 2005
Note

QC 20100715

Available from: 2007-11-13 Created: 2007-11-13 Last updated: 2014-12-03Bibliographically approved
8. Spececulative Admission Control and Scheduling for Packet-Switched Wireless Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spececulative Admission Control and Scheduling for Packet-Switched Wireless Networks
2005 (English)In: IEEE Journal on Special Areas in Communications, Special issue: Price-Based Access Control and Economics for Communication NetworksArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25416 (URN)
Note

QS 2010 QS 20120319. NV 20160128

Available from: 2010-10-21 Created: 2010-10-21 Last updated: 2016-01-28Bibliographically approved

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