Long Proofs of (Seemingly) Simple Formulas
2014 (English)In: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF SATISFIABILITY TESTING - SAT 2014, 2014, 121-137 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
In 2010, Spence and Van Gelder presented a family of CNF formulas based on combinatorial block designs. They showed empirically that this construction yielded small instances that were orders of magnitude harder for state-of-the-art SAT solvers than other benchmarks of comparable size, but left open the problem of proving theoretical lower bounds. We establish that these formulas are exponentially hard for resolution and even for polynomial calculus, which extends resolution with algebraic reasoning. We also present updated experimental data showing that these formulas are indeed still hard for current CDCL solvers, provided that these solvers do not also reason in terms of cardinality constraints (in which case the formulas can become very easy). Somewhat intriguingly, however, the very hardest instances in practice seem to arise from so-called fixed bandwidth matrices, which are provably easy for resolution and are also simple in practice if the solver is given a hint about the right branching order to use. This would seem to suggest that CDCL with current heuristics does not always search efficiently for short resolution proofs, despite the theoretical results of [Pipatsrisawat and Darwiche 2011] and [Atserias, Fichte, and Thurley 2011].
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. 121-137 p.
, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 8561
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158359DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09284-3-10ISI: 000345595300010ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84958552506ISBN: 978-3-319-09284-3; 978-3-319-09283-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-158359DiVA: diva2:782272
17th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT) Held as Part of the Federated Logic Conference (FLoC) / Vienna Summer of Logic (VSL) Conference, JUL 09-24, 2014, Vienna, AUSTRIA
QC 201501202015-01-202015-01-072015-01-20Bibliographically approved