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Who will close the energy efficiency gap?: A quantitative study of what characterizes ambitious housing firms in Sweden
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2736-5176
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

is paper reports the results from a study that attempts to identify factors that characterize housing firms with particularly ambitious approaches to energy efficiency in connection to renovation. The aim of the study was to identify factors that correlate with ambitious firms and the market they operate in. The study builds on previous results that identified four ideal types among Swedish housing firms, ranging from not ambitious to very ambitious with regards to energy efficiency. Based on the ideal types, this paper uses three levels of ambition and focuses on the more ambitious levels to see if there are factors that co-vary with an ambitious approach.

Six hypotheses were formulated; ambitious firms were believed to be municipal, to be operating in markets with high and/or volatile energy prices, to be operating in strong markets, to have building portfolios in need of renovation, to be large and to have an expert employee who champions energy efficiency issues.

Using web survey results from housing firms, an ordered probit model was used to test if level of ambition as the independent variable and a number of firm and market specific factors as dependent variables The results indicate support for some of the hypotheses; the probability of being ambitious increases if firms are municipally owned, have a building portfolio in need of renovation and have an employee who champions the energy efficiency issues. There were no indications that high/volatile energy prices, strong markets or firm size influence the probability of being more ambitious.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , 26 p.
, Working Paper Series, Department of Real Estate and Construction Management & Centre for Banking and Finance (cefin), 2015:1
Keyword [en]
energy efficiciency, housing, sustainable renovation, incentives, drivers
National Category
Economics and Business
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159236OAI: diva2:783673

QC 20150205

Available from: 2015-01-26 Created: 2015-01-26 Last updated: 2015-06-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Building Sustainability: Studies on incentives in construction and management of real estate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building Sustainability: Studies on incentives in construction and management of real estate
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis summarizes the results from several studies with connection to sustainability in construction and management of real estate. Here, the concept sustainability includes environmental, social and economic dimensions and focus is on the actors with the best possibilities to impact real estate, namely the real estate owners and the developers. The thesis consists of six papers. Real estate owners’ perception of and incentives and strategies for sustainability was studied in four ways: incentives for energy efficiency and other sustainability issues in connection to renovation (papers I and II), factors that characterize firms with an ambitious approach to energy efficiency (paper V) and economic incentives for energy efficiency (paper VI). Developers’ behavior and impact on sustainability was studied in two ways: how developers’ planning and construction methods may influence energy consumption for future residents (paper III) and how developers relate to requirements for building environmental certification levels (paper IV).

The first paper aims to clarify how housing firms see and treat energy efficiency matters in connection to renovation of multi-family buildings constructed during the 1960’s and 70’s. Interviews with housing firms resulted in four ideal housing firm types illustrating that housing firms have more or less incentives to improve energy efficiency. The second paper aimed to study a model for renovation of buildings in a residential area in peripheral Stockholm and to assess how it considers environmental, social and economic sustainability as well as technical concerns.

Paper V builds on the results in paper I and aims to identify factors, on a firm level as well as in the surroundings of the firm, that characterize housing firms who own multi-family buildings from the 1960’s and 70’s and who have an ambitious approach to energy efficiency.

Paper VI uses information from energy performance certificates to study whether better energy performance increases the selling price of single-family homes, which would increase owners’ incentives to improve energy efficiency.

Paper III takes its starting point in an indicated shift in developers’ planning and construction practices for laundry facilities in owner-occupied multi-family buildings. The paper aims to clarify whether a shift has actually occurred from communal laundry rooms to in-unit laundry appliances and to illuminate the impact this could have on residents’ energy consumption for laundry. Paper IV reports the study of how developers who have adopted the environmental certification system LEED relate to the requirements for specific certification levels and how updated requirements risk undermining developers’ incentives for sustainable construction.

Abstract [sv]

Den här avhandlingen sammanfattar arbetet från flera studier med koppling till hållbarhet inom bygg och förvaltning av fastigheter. Begreppet hållbarhet omfattar här tre dimensioner: miljömässig, social och ekonomisk hållbarhet, och fokus ligger på de aktörer som har mest möjlighet att påverka fastigheterna, nämligen fastighetsägare och projektutvecklare. I avhandlingen ingår sex uppsatser. Fastighetsägares uppfattning av och incitament och strategier för hållbarhet undersöktes på fyra olika sätt: incitament för energieffektivisering och andra hållbarhetsfrågor i samband med renovering (uppsats I och II), faktorer som karaktäriserar företag med ett ambitiöst förhållningssätt i energieffektiviseringsfrågor (uppsats V) samt ekonomiska incitament för energieffektivisering (uppsats VI). Projektutvecklares beteende och påverkan på hållbarhet undersöktes på två sätt: hur projektutvecklares planering och byggmetoder kan påverka energianvändningen för framtida boende (uppsats III) och hur projektutvecklare förhåller sig till kravnivåer i miljöcertifiering av byggnader (uppsats IV).

Den första uppsatsen syftar till att belysa hur bostadsföretag ser på och behandlar energieffektiviseringsfrågor i samband med renovering av flerbostadshus byggda under miljonprogrammet. Baserat på intervjuer med bostadsföretag resulterade den explorativa studien i konstruktionen av fyra idealtyper av bostadsföretag med mer eller mindre incitament för att energieffektivisera. Den andra uppsatsen syftade till att undersöka en modell för renovering av miljonprogramshus i ett bostadsområde i Stockholms ytterområden och bedöma hur den tar hänsyn till miljömässig, social och ekonomisk hållbarhet tillsammans med tekniska överväganden.

Uppsats V bygger på resultaten i uppsats I och syftar till att urskilja faktorer, såväl på företagsnivå som i företagets omgivning, som karaktäriserar bostadsföretag som äger flerbostadshus från miljonprogramsåren och som har en ambitiös hållning i energieffektiviseringsfrågor.

Uppsats VI använder information från energideklarationer för att undersöka om bättre energiprestanda ökar försäljningspriset på småhus, något som skulle öka ägarens incitament för energieffektivisering.

Uppsats III utgår från en indikerad förändring i projektutvecklares planering och byggmetoder av tvättinrättningar i flerbostadshus med bostadsrätt. Uppsatsen syftar till att klarlägga om en förändring har skett från gemensam tvättstuga till tvättmöjligheter i den egna bostaden och belysa vilken effekt det skulle kunna ha på de boendes energianvändning för tvätt. I uppsats IV klarläggs hur projektutvecklare som bygger enligt miljöcertifieringssystemet LEED förhåller sig till kraven för att uppnå nivåerna för att klassificeras och hur uppdaterade kravnivåer riskerar att undergräva projektutvecklarnas incitament för att bygga hållbart.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014
sustainability, sustainable buildings, sustainable renovation, sustainable construction, sustainable management, housing, sustainable building certification, energy efficiency, incentives
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Real Estate and Construction Management
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157936 (URN)978-91-85783-40-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-01-16, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Cerbof, 40Swedish Research Council Formas, 2012-553

QC 20141218

Available from: 2014-12-18 Created: 2014-12-18 Last updated: 2015-06-16Bibliographically approved

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