Penetrability due to filtration tendency of cement based grouts
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
Grouting as a method of strengthening and sealing rock, soil and concrete is widely used. The possibilities of sealing structures are of great importance from both an economical and environmental point of view. The cost of grouting has in certain projects been as high as the cost for the blasting and excavation of the tunnel. To improve the technique of grouting with cement based material, it is necessary to focus on the properties of the used grout mixture. The ability of a grout to penetrate cavities, channels and porous material, the penetrability, depends on two things, the theology and the filtration tendency. Extensive laboratory tests on stable, low w/c-ratio, injection grouts show that the most significant limitation to their penetrability is the tendency of cement grains to agglomerate into an impermeable filter cake. The properties of a grout that may prevent passing obstructions in the flow path without the cement grains clogging and preventing further penetration is in this work called filtration tendency. An inert material mixture and a cement-based mixture are used for the investigations in this work. The inert material, which is crushed dolomite stone, does not react with the added water in the mixture. The used cement grouts are based upon three types of commercial available Portland cements and four Portland cements with modified grain size distribution curves.
Performed tests show that the grain size and grain size distribution is of great importance for the filtration tendency. According to performed experiments with inert and cement material, it seems to be advantageous for the penetrability to have a grain size distribution that contains neither too many fine or coarse grains. It is reasonable to believe that the grain size distribution should be relatively steep (narrow grain size range) between minimum and maximum grain size. The maximum grain size is of importance in terms of for example d95. Too large maximum grain size will prevent penetration of the mixture through obstructions in the flow path. According to performed tests, the value of d95, should be between
4-10 times smaller than the aperture to be penetrated by the cement based mixture. The small grain sizes are also of importance in order to achieve a low filtration tendency of the grout. This is because of the increased tendency for the small grains to flocculation into larger agglomerates, compared to larger grain sizes.
The filtration experiments with cement based grouts show that influences of parameters like surface chemistry (use of superplastisisers) and cement chemistry (hydration of cement grains) will strongly affect the filtration tendency of the mixture.
To visualize the phenomenon of filtration tendency it can be investigated on a larger scale than usually takes place. Filtration experiments in the scale of approximately 100:1 have been performed in order to see influences of grain concentration, grain shape and the penetrated slot aperture. It can be seen that used grain sizes (monodisperse and inert mixture) should be approximately at least 2-3 times smaller than the aperture to be penetrated by the mixture. Numerical experiments of filtration tendency have also been performed to investigate the possibilities to numerically simulate the influence of grain concentration and slot aperture. The numerical experiments are based on Eulerian flow modelling.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , xi, 187, 23 p.
Trita-JOB PHD, ISSN 1650-9501 ; 1007
Construction engineering, grout, grouting, penetrability, filtration tendency
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-200DiVA: diva2:7884
2005-05-20, Sal Es, Lindstedtsvägen 3, Stockholm, 10:00
QC 201010072005-05-152005-05-152010-10-07Bibliographically approved