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Satellite monitoring of urbanization and environmental impacts: A comparison of Stockholm and Shanghai
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics. (Geoinformatics)
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 0303-2434, Vol. 38, 138-149 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates urbanization and its potential environmental consequences in Shanghai andStockholm metropolitan areas over two decades. Changes in land use/land cover are estimated fromsupport vector machine classifications of Landsat mosaics with grey-level co-occurrence matrix fea-tures. Landscape metrics are used to investigate changes in landscape composition and configurationand to draw preliminary conclusions about environmental impacts. Speed and magnitude of urbaniza-tion is calculated by urbanization indices and the resulting impacts on the environment are quantified byecosystem services. Growth of urban areas and urban green spaces occurred at the expense of croplandin both regions. Alongside a decrease in natural land cover, urban areas increased by approximately 120%in Shanghai, nearly ten times as much as in Stockholm, where the most significant land cover changewas a 12% urban expansion that mostly replaced agricultural areas. From the landscape metrics results,it appears that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high densitybuilt-up areas in previously more natural/agricultural environments, while the expansion of low densitybuilt-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. Urban growth resulted inecosystem service value losses of approximately 445 million US dollars in Shanghai, mostly due to thedecrease in natural coastal wetlands while in Stockholm the value of ecosystem services changed very lit-tle. Total urban growth in Shanghai was 1768 km2and 100 km2in Stockholm. The developed methodologyis considered a straight-forward low-cost globally applicable approach to quantitatively and qualitativelyevaluate urban growth patterns that could help to address spatial, economic and ecological questions inurban and regional planning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 38, 138-149 p.
Keyword [en]
Urbanization, Land use/land cover (LULC), Ecosystme Services, Landscape Metrics, Environmental Impact, SVM
National Category
Remote Sensing
Research subject
Geodesy and Geoinformatics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-160125DOI: 10.1016/j.jag.2014.12.008ISI: 000351970100015OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-160125DiVA: diva2:788742
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

QC 20150519. Updated fråm Manuscript to Article

Available from: 2015-02-16 Created: 2015-02-16 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Remote Sensing of Urbanization and Environmental Impacts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Sensing of Urbanization and Environmental Impacts
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis aims to establish analytical frameworks to map urban growth patterns with spaceborne remote sensing data and to evaluate environmental impacts through Landscape Metrics and Ecosystem Services. Urbanization patterns at regional scale were evaluated in China's largest urban agglomerations and at metropolitan scale in Shanghai, Stockholm and Beijing using medium resolution optical satellite data. High-resolution data was used to investigate changes in Shanghai’s urban core. The images were co-registered and mosaicked. Tasseled Cap transformations and texture features were used to increase class separabilities prior to pixel-based Random Forest and SVM classifications. Urban land cover in Shanghai and Beijing were derived through object-based SVM classification in KTH-SEG. After post-classification refinements, urbanization indices, Ecosystem Services and Landscape Metrics were used to quantify and characterize environmental impact. Urban growth was observed in all studies. China's urban agglomerations showed most prominent urbanization trends. Stockholm’s urban extent increased only little with minor environmental implications. On a regional/metropolitan scale, urban expansion progressed predominately at the expense of agriculture. Investigating urbanization patterns at higher detail revealed trends that counteracted negative urbanization effects in Shanghai's core and Beijing's urban-rural fringe. Beijing's growth resulted in Ecosystem Services losses through landscape structural changes, i.e. service area decreases, edge contamination or fragmentation. Methodological frameworks to characterize urbanization trends at different scales based on remotely sensed data were developed. For detailed urban analyses high-resolution data are recommended whereas medium-resolution data at metropolitan/regional scales is suggested. The Ecosystem Service concept was extended with Landscape Metrics to create a more differentiated picture of urbanization effects.​

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016
Series
TRITA-SOM, ISSN 1653-6126 ; 2016:01
Keyword
Remote Sensing, Urbanization, Land Use/Land Cover (LULC), Environmental Impact, Landscape Metrics, Ecosystem Services
National Category
Remote Sensing
Research subject
Geodesy and Geoinformatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181867 (URN)978-91-7595-852-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-02-25, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160205

Available from: 2016-02-05 Created: 2016-02-05 Last updated: 2016-02-09Bibliographically approved
2. Satellie Monitoring of Urban Growth and Indicator-based Assessment of Environmental Impact
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Satellie Monitoring of Urban Growth and Indicator-based Assessment of Environmental Impact
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the major consequences of urbanization is the transformation of land surfaces from rural/natural environments to built-up land that supports diverse forms of human activity. These transformations impact the local geology, climate, hydrology, flora and fauna and human-life supporting ecosystem services in the region. Mapping and analysis of land use/land cover change in urban regions and tracking their environmental impact is therefore of vital importance for evaluating policy options for future growth and promoting sustainable urban development.

The overall objective of this research is to investigate the extent of urban growth and/or sprawl and its potential environmental impact in the regions surrounding a few selected major cities in North America, Europe and Asia using landscape metrics and other environmental indicators to assess the landscape changes. The urban regions examined are the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in Canada, Stockholm region and County in Sweden and Shanghai in China. The analyses are based on classificatons of optical satellite imagery (Landsat TM/ETM+ or SPOT 1/5) between 1985 and 2010. Maximum likelihood classification (MLC) under urban/rural masks, objectbased image analysis (OBIA) with rule-based classification and support vector machines (SVM) classification methods were used with grey level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) texture features as input to help obtain higher accuracies. Based on the classification results, landscape metrics, selected environmental indicators and indices, and ecosystem service valuation were calculated and used to estimate environmental impact of urban growth.

The results show that urban areas in the GTA grew by nearly 40% between 1985 and 2005. Results from the landscape metrics and urban compactness indicators show that low-density built-up areas increased significantly in the GTA between 1985 and 2005, mainly at the expense of agricultural areas. The majority of environmentally significant areas were increasingly surrounded by urban areas between 1985 and 2005, furthering their isolation from other natural areas. Urban areas in the Stockholm region increased by 10% between 1986 and 2006. The landscape metrics indicated that natural areas became more isolated or shrank whereas new small urban patches came into being. The most noticeable changes in terms of environmental impact and urban expansion were in the east and north of the study area. Large forested areas in the northeast dropped the most in terms of environmental impact ranking, while the most improved analysis units were close to the central Stockholm area. The study comparing Shanghai and Stockholm County revealed that urban areas increased ten times as much in Shanghai as they did in Stockholm, at 120% and 12% respectively. The landscape metrics results show that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high density built-up areas in previously more natural environments, while the expansion of low density built-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. The growth in urban areas resulted in ecosystem service value losses of approximately 445 million USD in Shanghai, mostly due to the decrease in natural coastal wetlands, while in Stockholm the value of ecosystem services changed very little.

This study demonstrates the utility of urban and environmental indicators derived from remote sensing data via GIS techniques in assessing both the spatio-temporal dynamics of urban growth and its environmental impact in different metropolitan regions. High accuracy classifications of optical medium resolution remote sensing data are achieved thanks in part to the incorporation of texture features for both object- and pixel-based classification methods, and to the use of urban/rural masks with the latter. The landscape metrics calculated based on the classifications are useful in quantifying urban growth trends and potential environmental impact as well as facilitating their comparison. The environmental indicator results highlight the challenges in terms of sustainable urban growth unique to each landscape, both spatially and temporally. The next phase of this PhD research will involve finding valid methods of comparing and contrasting urban growth patterns and estimated environmental impact in different regions of the world and further exploration of how to link urbanizing landscapes to changes in ecosystem services via environmental indicators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xi, 91 p.
Series
TRITA-SOM, ISSN 1653-6126 ; 2014-15
Keyword
Urban growth, remote sensing, landcover classification, landscape metrics, environmental indicators, environmental impact, Greater Toronto Area, Stockholm, Shanghai
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157669 (URN)978-91-7595-353-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-12-12, Seminarierum 4055, 3tr, Drottning Kristinas Väg 30, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20141212

Available from: 2014-12-12 Created: 2014-12-12 Last updated: 2016-02-09Bibliographically approved

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