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Programming in School: Look Back to Move Forward
KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik. (Teknikdidaktik)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6012-6834
KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3973-3466
2014 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 14, no 2, 12:1-12:25 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, the development of the Swedish informatics curriculum during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990sis studied and described. The study’s design is inspired by the curriculum theory presented by Lindensj¨oand Lundgren [2000], who suggest using the concept of arenas (the arenas of enactment, transformationand realisation) when discussing curriculum development. Data collection in this study comprises activitiesand actors in the arenas of enactment and transformation. Collected data include contemporary articles,journals, reports, booklets, government documents and archived documents. Findings show that informaticseducation in Sweden evolved from primarily focusing on programming knowledge related to automatic dataprocessing and offered exclusively in vocational education (the 1960s and 1970s) to later (early 1980s) beingintroduced in the upper secondary school curriculum under the heading Datakunskap. The enactment of theinformatics curriculum in 1983 encompassed programming, system development and computing in relationto applied sciences and civics. Mathematics teachers did much of the experimental work. It is shown that thecompetencies of upper secondary school teachers at the time rarely corresponded to the demands of the subject(content knowledge, resources and pedagogical skills). Stereotypical examples were therefore developedto support teachers in instructing about the subject content. When implemented in the theoretical naturalscience-programme, system development/systemisation was transformed into a twofold issue, comprisingvocational attributes and societal aspects of computer programming. The implementation of today’s informaticseducation, including programming in the curriculum, should draw from lessons learned from history.For a successful outcome, this study emphasises the necessity to understand 1) the common incentives forintroducing computer programming in the curriculum, 2) the requirement for teachers’ pedagogical contentknowledge and 3) the stakeholders’ role in the curriculum development process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014. Vol. 14, no 2, 12:1-12:25 p.
Keyword [en]
Computer programming, automatic data processing (ADP), upper secondary school, teacher, curriculum development, informatics education, National Board of Education, Ministry of Education
National Category
Pedagogy Didactics
Research subject
Education and Communication in the Technological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-160717DOI: 10.1145/2602487Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84905856931OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-160717DiVA: diva2:791102
Note

QC 20150227

Available from: 2015-02-26 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Programmed or Not: A study about programming teachers’ beliefs and intentions in relation to curriculum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Programmed or Not: A study about programming teachers’ beliefs and intentions in relation to curriculum
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Programmerad eller Inte : programmering i skolan från ett lärarperspektiv
Abstract [en]

In the intersection of technology, curriculum and intentions, a specific issue of interest is found in the gap between teachers’ intentions and implementations of curriculum. Instead of approaching curriculum and technology as something fait accompli, teachers are considered crucial in the re-discovery of what and how to teach. The thesis depicts the mind-set of teachers and their beliefs in relation to computing curriculum. Three perspectives are covered in the thesis. Based on original documents and interviews with curriculum developers, the enactment of the computing/programming curriculum during the 1970s and 1980s is explored (Paper 1). This historical perspective is supplemented with a perspective from the present day where current teaching practice is explored through teachers’ statements (seminars with associated questionnaires) regarding their beliefs about teaching and learning programming(Paper 2). Finally with a view from a theoretical perspective, teachers’perception of instruction is discussed in relation to a theoretical framework where their intentions in relation to theoretical and practical aspects of knowledge are revealed (Papers 3 & 4). The initial incitement to offer computing education during the 1970s was discovered in the recruitment of a broader group of students within the Natural Science Programme and the perception that it would contribute to the development of students’ ability to think logically and learn problem solving skills. Data concerning teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning programming unravels an instructional dependence among today’s teachers where students’ logical and analytical abilities (even before the courses start) are considered crucial to students’ learning, while teachers question the importance of their pedagogy. The thesis also discover two types of instruction; a large group putting emphasis on the syntax of programming languages, and a smaller group putting emphasis on the students’ experiences of learning concepts of computer science (not necessarily to do with syntax). In summary the thesis depicts an instructional tradition based on teachers’ beliefs where the historical development of the subject sets the framework for the teaching. Directly and indirectly the historical development and related traditions govern what programming teachers in upper secondary school will/are able to present to their students. From deploying two theoretical approaches, phenomenography and logic of events, upon teacher’s cases it is shown that the intended object of learning (iOoL) is shaped by the teacher’s intentions (e.g., balancing the importance oftheory and practice, using different learning strategies, encouraging learning by trial-and-error and fostering collaboration between students for a deeper understanding). The teachers also present a diverse picture regarding what theoretical knowledge students will reach for.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. ix, 99 p.
Series
TRITA-ECE, 2015:3
Keyword
computing, programming education, teachers’ beliefs, intentionality, curriculum development, curriculum studies, upper secondary school
National Category
Educational Sciences Pedagogy Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Education and Communication in the Technological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-160724 (URN)978-91-7595-463-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-03-20, F3 (Gradängsal), Lindstedtsvägen 26, floor 02, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150227

Available from: 2015-02-27 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2016-12-05Bibliographically approved

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Rolandsson, LennartSkogh, Inga-Britt

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