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Numerical study of the Stokes layer in oscillating channel flow
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3194-5141
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4103-0129
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5913-5431
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Oscillating turbulent channel flows present particular physics that proves to be particularly difficult to understand. In this paper, a case where the amplitude of the oscillations at the center of the channel is approximately 15% of the mean velocity and the dimensionless angular forcing frequency is 0.01 was studied using several numerical methods. DNS was performed to serve as reference to which the results from an LES were compared. The LES data was post-processed using both phase averaging and the more recent dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), which extracts coherent structures based on their frequency. It was found that the DMD is not able to extract faint harmonic components of the oscillations, which have been observed with phase averaging and Fourier transforms. It is, however, able to extract accurate profiles of the mean and forcing frequency quantities. Compared to the DNS, the accuracy of the LES results was similar to analytical models, although no single model gives accurate result for every quantity investigated.  

Keyword [en]
pulsating channel flow, LES, DNS, DMD
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161407OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-161407DiVA: diva2:794522
Note

QC 20170117

Available from: 2015-03-11 Created: 2015-03-11 Last updated: 2017-01-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Drag reduction using plasma actuators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drag reduction using plasma actuators
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is motivated by the application of active flow control on the cabin of trucks, thereby providing a new means of drag reduction. Particularly, the work presented strives to identify how plasma actuators can be used to reduce the drag caused by the detachment of the flow around the A-pillars. This is achieved by conducting numerical simulations, and is part of a larger project that also includes experimental.

The effect of plasma actuators is modeled through a body force, which adds very little computational cost and is suitable for implementation in most CFD solvers. The spatial distribution of this force is described by coefficients which have been optimized against experimental data, and the model was shown to be able to accurately reproduce the wall jet created by a single plasma actuator in a no-flow condition.

A half cylinder geometry - a simplified geometry for the A-pillar of a truck - was used in a preliminary Large Eddy Simulation (LES) study that showed that the actuator alone, operated continuously, was not sufficient to achieve a significant reduction of the drag. Nevertheless, a significant drag reduction was obtained by simply increasing the strength of the body force to a higher value, showing that this type of actuation remains relevant for the reduction of drag.

In the course of finding ways to improve the efficiency of the actuator, dynamic mode decomposition was investigated as a post-processing tool to extract structures in the flow. Such structures are identified by their spatial location and frequency, and might help to understand how the actuator should be used to maximize drag reduction. Thus a parallel code for dynamic mode decomposition was developed in order to facilitate the treatment of the large amounts of data obtained by LES. This code and LES itself were thereafter evaluated in the case of a pulsating channel flow. By using the dynamic mode decomposition it was possible to accurately extract oscillating profiles at the forcing frequency, although harmonics with lower amplitude compared to the turbulence intensity could not be obtained.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling behandlar tillämpningen av aktiv strömningskontroll för lastbilshytter, vilket är en ny metod för minskning av luftmotståndet. Mer i detalj är det övergripande målet att visa på hur plasmaaktuatorer kan användas för att minska luftmotståndet orsakat av avlösningen runt A-stolparna. In denna avhandling studeras detta genom numeriska simuleringar. Arbetet är en del av ett projekt där även experimentella försök görs.

Effekten av plasmaaktuatorer modelleras genom en masskraft, vilket inte ger nämnvärd ökning av beräkningstiden och är lämplig för implementering i de flesta CFD-lösare. Den rumsliga fördelningen av kraften bestäms av koefficienter vilka i detta arbete beräknades utifrån experimentella data. Modellen har visat sig kunna återskapa en stråle nära väggen med god noggrannhet av en enskild plasmaaktuator för en halvcylinder utan strömning.

Samma geometri - en halvcylinder som här används som förenklad geometri av A-stolpen på en lastbil - användes i en preliminär LES studie som visade att enbart aktuatorn vid kontinuerlig drift inte var tillräckligt för att uppnå en signifikant minskning av luftmotståndet. En signifikant minskning av luftmotståndet erhölls genom att helt enkelt öka styrkan på kraften, vilket visats att denna typ av strömningskontroll är relevant för minskning av luftmotståndet.

I syfte att förbättra effektiviteten hos aktuatorn, studerades dynamic mode decomposition, som ett verktyg för efterbehandling för att få fram flödesstrukturer. Dessa strukturer identifieras genom deras rumsupplösning och frekvens och kan hjälpa till att förstå hur aktuatorerna bör användas för att minska luftmotståndet. En parallelliserad kod för dynamic mode decomposition utvecklades för att underlätta efterbehandlingen av de stora datamängder som fås från LES-beräkningarna. Slutligen, utvärderades denna kod och LES-beräkningar på ett strömningsfall med pulserande kanalflöde. Metoden, dynamic mode decomposition, visade sig kunna extrahera de oscillerande flödesprofilerna med hög noggrannhet för den påtvingade frekvensen. Övertoner med lägre amplitud jämfört med turbulensintensiteten kunde dock inte erhållas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. 10, 52 p.
Series
TRITA-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2015:10
Keyword
flow control, drag reduction, plasma actuator, DMD, LES, optimization, pulsating flow, strömningskontroll, motståndsminskning, plasma ställdon, DMD, LES, optimering, pulserande flöde
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161409 (URN)978-91-7595-479-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-03-27, Vehicle Engineering Lab, Teknikringen 8 KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 34186-1
Note

QC 20150312

Available from: 2015-03-12 Created: 2015-03-11 Last updated: 2015-03-12Bibliographically approved
2. Theoretical and numerical studies of sound propagation in low-Mach-number duct flows
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theoretical and numerical studies of sound propagation in low-Mach-number duct flows
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

When sound waves propagate in a duct in the presence of turbulent flow, turbulent mixing can cause attenuation of the sound waves extra to that caused by the viscothermal effects. Experiments show that compared to the viscothermal effects, this turbulent absorption becomes the dominant contribution to the sound attenuation at sufficiently low frequencies. The mechanism of this turbulent absorption is attributed to the turbulent stress and the turbulent heat transfer acting on the coherent perturbations (including the sound waves) near the duct wall, i.e. sound-turbulence interaction.

The purpose of the current investigation is to understand the mechanism of the sound-turbulence interaction in low-Mach-number internal flows by theoretical modeling and numerical simulations. The turbulence absorption can be modeled through perturbation turbulent Reynolds stresses and perturbation turbulent heat flux in the linearized perturbation equations. In this thesis, the linearized perturbation equations are reviewed, and different models for the turbulent absorption of the sound waves are investigated. A new non–equilibrium model for the perturbation turbulent Reynolds stress is also proposed. The proposed model is validated by comparing with experimental data from the literature, and with the data from Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of pulsating turbulent channel flow. Good agreement is observed. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. viii, 82 p.
Series
TRITA-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2015:30
Keyword
Aeroacoustics, Acoustic wave absorption, Acoustic wave propagation, Boundary layer turbulence, DNS
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168031 (URN)978-91-7595-621-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-15, D2, Lindstedtsvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20150526

Available from: 2015-05-26 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2015-05-26Bibliographically approved
3. Effect of drag reducing plasma actuators using LES
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of drag reducing plasma actuators using LES
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The work performed in this thesis explores new ways of reducing the drag of ground vehicles. Specifically, the effect of plasma actuators are investigated numerically with the intention to delay separation around a half-cylinder, a geometry chosen to represent a simplified A-pillar of a truck.

The plasma actuators have to be included in turbulent flow simulations. Therefore, emphasis is first put on finding a numerical model that can reproduce the effect of the plasma without increasing the computational cost. This effect is modeled through a body force term added to the Navier-Stokes equations. To determine the strength and spatial extent of this body force, optimization was performed to minimize the difference between experimental and simulated profiles of plasma induced velocity. 

The plasma actuator model is thereafter used in Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the flow around a half-cylinder at Reynolds number Re=65*10^3 and Re=32*10^3. Two types of actuation cases are performed. In the first case, a single actuator is used. In the second case, a pair of consecutive actuators are used, and their position on the half-cylinder is changed. It is found that a drag reduction of up to 10% is achievable. Moreover, the ideal location for actuation is determined to be near the separation point of the non-actuated flow. 

Finally, dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is investigated as a tool to extract coherent dynamic structures from a turbulent flow field. The DMD is first used to analyze a channel flow where pulsations are imposed at a known frequency. It is found that DMD gives similar results to phase averaging done at the oscillation frequency. However, the presence of turbulence noise hinders the ability to identify modes at higher harmonics. The DMD is also used to post-process the half-cylinder flow case. There, it is found that the spectrum of the wake is broadband. Nevertheless, modes within distinct frequency ranges are found to be located in distinct spatial regions.

Abstract [sv]

Arbetet som utförts i denna avhandling undersöker nya sätt att minska luftmotstånd hos markfordon. Speciellt undersöks numeriskt effekten av plasmaaktuatorer med avsikten att uppnå fördröjd separation av strömningen kring en halvcylinder, en geometri vald för att representera en förenklad A-stolpe på en lastbil. 

För att kunna utföra studien behöver plasmaaktuatorer kunna ingå i beräkningar av turbulenta strömningsfält. Därför undersöks först sätt för att hitta en numerisk modell som kan reproducera effekten av plasma utan att öka beräkningskostnad. Plasmaaktuatorn  modelleras i detta arbete genom att ett källterm adderas till Navier-Stokes ekvationer. För att bestämma styrkan och den rumsliga utbredningen hos källtermen, utförs en optimering för att minimera skillnaden mellan experimentella och simulerade profiler av plasma inducerad strömningshastighet. 

Plasmaaktuatormodellen används därefter i Large Eddy Simulations (LES) för att beräkna strömningen kring en halvcylinder med Reynolds tal Re=65*10^3 och Re=32*10^3. Två typer av fall studeras. I det första fallet används en enda aktuator. I det andra fallet, är ett par på varandra följande aktuatorer placerade, där aktuatorernas position på halvcylinder ändras. Resultaten visar att en luftmotståndsminskning på upp till 10% kan erhållas. Den idealiska platsen för aktuatorn bedöms vara nära den punkt där strömningen utan aktuator separerar.

Slutligen undersöks Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) som ett verktyg för att extrahera koherenta dynamiska strukturer i en turbulent strömning. DMD används först för att analysera pulserande kanalströmning där pulsationen har en känd frekvens. Resultaten visar att DMD ger liknande resultat som då fas-medelvärdesbildning görs vid oscillationsfrekvensen. Förekomsten av turbulens buller hindrar dock möjligheten att identifiera moder vid högre övertoner. DMD används också för att analysera strömningen kring halv-cylindern. I avhandlingen visas att spektrat i vaken är bredbandigt men att även moder inom distinkta frekvensintervall fanns vara belägna i avgränsade områden i vaken.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 62 p.
Series
TRITA-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2017:02
Keyword
flow control, drag reduction, plasma actuator, DMD, LES, optimization, pulsating flow, strömningskontroll, motståndsminskning, plasmaaktuator, DMD, LES, optimering, pulserande strömning
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199873 (URN)978-91-7729-261-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-02-03, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 34186-1
Note

QC 20170117

Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-16 Last updated: 2017-01-17Bibliographically approved

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