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Grand Inga to power Africa: Hydropower development scenarios to 2035
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4022-5506
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. Columbia University, United States .
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
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2014 (English)In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 4, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The vision of harnessing the Congo River's immense flow to generate power for the African continent has existed in the agenda of energy planners and politicians for nearly a century. However after the installations of Inga I in 1972 and Inga II in 1982, progress came to a standstill. Recently though the larger aspirations of Grand Inga seem to be moving forward again. Construction of Inga III low-head is set to commence in 2015 with a projected capacity of 4755MW, of which 2500MW are contracted for the South African market. Upon completion, the total capacity of Grand Inga could reach 42GW. In this paper, we present scenario-driven results of a Sub-Saharan African-focused partial-equilibrium energy model related to the further development of the project. The analysis is presented to show the broad range of possible energy futures related to this project, without taking into deep consideration the admittedly important issues related to governance, environmental impacts or social tensions. Scenarios are developed to assess the energy outlook of the Central African power pool, in which Grand Inga is located, and the exchange of electricity between regions when the project is completed. The project has the potential to cover the increasing needs for power in this power pool and provide electricity exports to other regions; primarily Southern and Western Africa in a high demand scenario and Southern and Northern Africa in a low demand scenario.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 4, 1-10 p.
Keyword [en]
African power pools, Electricity trade, Grand Inga
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161767DOI: 10.1016/j.esr.2014.01.001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84894243167OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-161767DiVA: diva2:795769
Note

QC 20150317

Available from: 2015-03-17 Created: 2015-03-17 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Large scale renewable energy deployment - Insights offered by long-term energy models from selected case studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large scale renewable energy deployment - Insights offered by long-term energy models from selected case studies
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG7) of Agenda 2030 calls for an increase in the use of renewable energy sources, among other targets. The percentage of fossil fuel-fired thermal generation for electricity is increasingly being reduced as renewable energy technologies (RET) advance in cost-competitiveness, and as greenhouse gas and industrial air pollutant emission limits become more stringent. In certain cases, renewable energy contributes to energy security by improving a nation’s trade balance, since local resources are harnessed and imports are reduced. RET investments are becoming more frequent gaining a sizeable share in the electric power mix of numerous countries.

However, RET is affected by existing fossil fuel-fired electricity generation, especially in countries that have domestic reserves. While coal may be dirty, others such as natural gas provide multiple benefits, presenting a challenge to renewables. Additionally, RET endowment varies for each geographical location. This often does not correspond to the location of major electricity demand centers.  Therefore, large scale RET adoption and integration becomes logistically more cumbersome, as it necessitates existence of a developed grid network.

Utilizing a series of analyses in two different settings – Africa and Cyprus – this thesis draws insights on RET growth policy and the level of technology representation in long term energy models. In order to capture specific challenges of RET integration, enhancements in traditional long-term energy system models are called for and carried out.

 The case of Africa is used to assess adoption of RET under various trade scenarios. It is home to some of the world’s greatest RET resource potential and the single largest potential RET project, Grand Inga.  While, the island of Cyprus has goals of introducing large percentages of RET into its electric power mix. Each have important idiosyncrasies which are reflected in the analysis. On the one hand, natural gas competes with RET in Cyprus and forms a key transition fuel away from oil. On the other hand, lack of cross-border interconnectors limit RET project development across Africa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 79 p.
Keyword
renewable energy integration; long-term energy models; gas reserves; policy insights; cost optimization; electricity trade
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207364 (URN)978-91-7729-426-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-09, M3, Brinellvägen 64, 114 28 Stockholm, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
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Note

QC 20170519

Available from: 2017-05-19 Created: 2017-05-19 Last updated: 2017-05-19Bibliographically approved

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Taliotis, Constantinos

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