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Transport Solutions for Future Broadband Access Networks
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2004-3350
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

“Connected society” where everything and everyone are connected at any time and on any location brings new challenges for the network operators. This leads to the need of upgrading the transport networks as the segment of Internet infrastructure connecting the fixed users and mobile base stations to the core/aggregation in order to provide high sustainable bandwidth, as well as supporting a massive number of connected devices. To do this, operators need to change the way that access networks are currently deployed. The future access network technologies will need to support very high capacity and very long distances, which are the inherited characteristics of optical transmission. Hence, optical fiber technology is recognized as the only future proof technology for broadband access.

Capacity upgrade in the access networks can lead to a huge capacity demand in the backbone network. One promising solution to address this problem, is to keep the local traffic close to the end users as much as possible, and prevent unnecessary propagation of this type of traffic through the backbone. In this way, operators would be able to expand their access network without the significant capacity upgrade in the higher aggregation layers. Motivated by this need, a comprehensive evaluation of optical access networks is carried out in this thesis regarding ability of accommodating local traffic and amount of possible saving in the backbone by implementing locality awareness schemes.

Meanwhile, next generation optical access (NGOA) networks have to provide high capacity at low cost while fulfilling the increasing reliability requirements of future services and customers. Therefore, finding cost-efficient and reliable alternative for future broadband access is one of the most important contributions of this thesis. We analyzed the tradeoff between the cost needed to deploy backup resources and the reliability performance improvement obtained by the proposed protection mechanism.

Among different NGOA architectures, hybrid time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (TWDM PON) is considered as a proper candidate providing high capacity and large coverage. Therefore, this approach is further analyzed and several tailored protection schemes with high flexibility are proposed to statisfy different requirements from the residential and business users in the same PON.  The work carried out in the thesis has proved that TWDM PON can also offer high reliability performance while keeping the network expenditures at an acceptable level. Considering some other advantages such as low power consumption and high flexibility in resource allocation of this architecture, it has high potential to be the best candidate for NGOA networks.

 Moreover, new deployments of radio access networks supporting the increasing capacity demand of mobile users lead to the upgrade of the backhaul segment as a part of broadband access infrastructure. Hence, this thesis also contributes with a comprehensive techno-economic evaluation methodology for mobile backhaul. Several technologies are investigated in order to find the most cost-efficient solution for backhauling the high capacity mobile networks.  Finally, a PON-based mobile backhaul with high capacity and low latency has been proposed for handling coordinated multipoint transmission systems in order to achieve high quality of experience for mobile users. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xii, 80 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 1501
Keyword [en]
Optical access network, mobile backhaul, techno-economic, reliability
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161936ISBN: 978-91-7595-450-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-161936DiVA: diva2:796654
Public defence
2015-04-13, Sal B, KTH ICT Electrum, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150320

Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-19 Last updated: 2015-03-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Off-loading the aggregation networks by locality-aware peer-to-peer based content distribution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Off-loading the aggregation networks by locality-aware peer-to-peer based content distribution
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2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Field measurements show that more than half of the Internet traffic could be able to take advantage of the local data storage and distribution by utilizing the peer–to–peer (P2P) technique, which in many cases can offer higher scalability and lower price than the client–server based applications. However, typically Internet service providers (ISPs) are limiting P2P applications, because P2P traffic may unnecessarily travel through areas managed by other ISPs and hence cause additional cost when transmitting outside the ISP’s network. In this paper we employ a locality–aware content fetching strategy for the P2P application and investigate the influence of systems utilizing locally stored content on the traffic load distribution between core, metro and access networks. Moreover, we quantitatively evaluate the improvement of the resource utilization in an access network along with the inter–ISP bandwidth saving. Our simulation results show that using locality aware content fetching in access network can reduce traffic loads in the metro and core networks by keeping it closer to the access via local bridging. The big amount of localized P2P traffic in the access network may introduce a new challenge for next generation access networks to cost–efficiently handle the local traffic.

Keyword
peer–to–peer (P2P) application, locality–aware content fetching scheme, traffic locality
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-86275 (URN)
Conference
Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, November 2011, Shangai, China
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note
QC 20120131Available from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2015-03-20Bibliographically approved
2. PON versus AON: Which is the best solution to offload core network by peer-to-peer traffic localization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PON versus AON: Which is the best solution to offload core network by peer-to-peer traffic localization
2015 (English)In: Optical Switching and Networkning Journal, ISSN 1573-4277, E-ISSN 1872-9770, Vol. 15, no 0, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Video streaming and video-on-demand are gaining popularity nowadays which dictates a need of bandwidth upgrade for Internet users. Many next generation optical access network architectures have been proposed to meet high capacity requirement on a per-user basis. However, the capacity upgrade in access networks, may lead to a huge traffic growth in the aggregation/core network. One way to avoid this problem is to keep the traffic locally (i.e., inside the access network area) as much as possible. It can be obtained by using locality-aware peer-to-peer (P2P) applications for content distribution and has the potential to offload the core segment. However, various optical access network architectures accommodate the P2P traffic in different ways. Thus, it is important to study these differences in order to identify the best architecture option for capacity offloading in the core network, energy efficiency and network resource utilization. By deploying a proper architecture in the access segment along with an efficient traffic locality aware strategy, the extra investment and capacity upgrade of the expensive core network resources needed to support the future traffic expansion can be minimized. However, to the best of our knowledge this kind of assessment is so far not available. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze the efficiency of supporting locality-aware P2P video distribution algorithm in three main types of optical access network architectures, i.e., active optical network (AON), wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM PON) and time/wavelength division multiplexing PON (TWDM PON). Our goal is to provide important design guidelines for the next generation broadband access architectures, while minimizing the need for the core network upgrade. We obtain this objective by utilizing the unique characteristics of each access network architecture in accommodating P2P video delivery applications. We have done an extensive literature study and for the first time we have compared performance of these architectures with respect to the amount of the traffic on the links in different aggregation levels, power consumption taking into account sleep mode functionality at the user premises, and required switching capacity in the nodes. Our results reveal that both active and passive architectures have good ability to localize P2P traffic, whereas they show distinct performance with respect to the other aforementioned aspects. This is caused by the different number of aggregation levels, link capacity, and resource allocation protocols. Considering the overall performance evaluation, it is shown that TWDM PON is the most promising option for the future broadband access, where locality-aware P2P video distribution is applied, thanks to its low energy consumption and required switching capacity of the network equipment needed to deliver this service. This conclusion is against the general intuition because of the PON׳s centralized control plane and passive infrastructure without switching capability in the field. Our unexpected conclusion can be of particular interest to operators as it is perfectly aligned with next generation optical access architecture identified by Full Service Access Networks (FSAN).

Keyword
Next generation optical access networks, Wavelength division multiplexing, Passive optical networks, Active optical networks, Peer to Peer traffic, Locality of traffic, Power consumption and power efficiency
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157407 (URN)10.1016/j.osn.2014.03.001 (DOI)000346212000001 ()2-s2.0-84898018510 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20150112

Available from: 2014-12-09 Created: 2014-12-09 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Protection cost evaluation of two WDM-based next generation optical access networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protection cost evaluation of two WDM-based next generation optical access networks
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of SPIE: The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2011, 83100P- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we investigate the capital and operational expenditures for two next generation optical access (NGOA) networks based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology in dense urban areas. It is shown that with a proper fiber layout design, minor extra investment for protection of NGOA networks can make a significant saving on failure related operational cost.

Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; Vol. 8310
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-59558 (URN)10.1117/12.902462 (DOI)000298881200015 ()2-s2.0-84862917537 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Network Architectures, Management, and Applications IX; Shanghai, China, 13-16 November, 2011
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20120124

Available from: 2012-01-11 Created: 2012-01-11 Last updated: 2015-03-20Bibliographically approved
4. Protection cost evaluation of WDM-based next generation optical access networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protection cost evaluation of WDM-based next generation optical access networks
2013 (English)In: Optical Switching and Networkning Journal, ISSN 1573-4277, E-ISSN 1872-9770, Vol. 10, no 1, 89-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New technologies and advanced network devices make it possible to move towards high capacity access networks able to satisfy the growing traffic demand. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is considered as one of the promising technologies for the next generation access networks since it offers higher bandwidth and longer reach compared to the current technologies (such as time division multiplexing (TDM) based networks). However, the migration to a new technology is typically based on an overall techno-economic study which should assure the network operator that the new implementation is cost effective and profitable while able to provide the required services to the users. Another important aspect in the access network design is the network reliability performance, which can be improved by providing a certain level of protection for equipment and/or infrastructure with high failure impact ratio in order to prevent a big number of the users being affected by a single failure. The cost of protection should be carefully evaluated since providing the backup resources may be too expensive for a network operator. In this paper, we investigate the capital and operational expenditures for two next generation optical access (NGOA) networks based on the WDM technology in dense urban areas. Three scenarios with different splitting ratios are studied for each technology, with and without protection. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of providing protection on the total cost of NGOA networks. The results show that in the dense urban areas the fibers and digging costs are highly shared among the end users but still vary according to the splitting ratios for different scenarios and the fiber layout. It also can be seen that with a proper fiber layout design, minor extra investment for protection of NGOA networks can make a significant saving on failure related operational cost and that operational expenditures depend significantly on the fiber layout.

Keyword
Next generation optical access networks, Wavelength division multiplexing, Passive optical networks
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-110053 (URN)10.1016/j.osn.2012.07.002 (DOI)000312181700009 ()2-s2.0-84869086685 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 249025
Note

QC 20130110

Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Efficient protection schemes for hybrid WDM/TDM Passive Optical Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient protection schemes for hybrid WDM/TDM Passive Optical Networks
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2012 (English)In: Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, 6220-6224 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Hybrid WDM/TDM Passive Optical Network (PON) is a promising candidate for next-generation optical access (NGOA) solutions as it is able to offer a high splitting ratio and consequently achieves a relatively low cost and power consumption on a per-user basis compared with other NGOA architectures. On the other hand, the end users require a certain level of connection availability while the operators need to reduce the failure impact (i.e. to avoid a huge number of end users being affected by any single failure). Therefore, by evaluating the connection availability and failure impact robustness we identify the most efficient parts to provide resilience in a hybrid WDM/TDM PON from an operator and an end-user perspective. Then, we select the appropriate protection schemes to construct some novel reliable architectures and analyze their reliability performance in urban and rural scenarios. In this way, this paper provides a comprehensive insight into the most relevant protection mechanisms for hybrid WDM/TDM PONs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
IEEE International Conference on Communications, ISSN 1550-3607
Keyword
Availability, Failure Impact Robustness, Hybrid WDM/TDM PON, Resilience
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-115472 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2012.6364787 (DOI)2-s2.0-84871955804 (Scopus ID)978-145772052-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2012, 10 June 2012 through 15 June 2012, Ottawa, ON
Note

QC 20130116

Available from: 2013-01-16 Created: 2013-01-15 Last updated: 2015-03-20Bibliographically approved
6. Toward Reliable Hybrid WDM/TDM Passive Optical Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Reliable Hybrid WDM/TDM Passive Optical Networks
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2014 (English)In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 52, no 2, S14-S23 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individual users and enterprises are increasingly relying on the access to internet services and cannot accept long interruption time as easily as before. Moreover, the main characteristics of next generation optical access (NGOA) networks, such as long reach and a large number of users per feeder line, turn the network reliability to an important design parameter to offer uninterrupted service delivery. In this regard, protection mechanisms become one of the crucial aspects that need to be considered in the design process of access networks. On the other hand, it should be noted that not all users can afford to pay a high extra cost for protection; hence, it is important to provide resilience in a cost-efficient way. A PON combining WDM and TDM technologies, referred to as hybrid WDM/TDM PON or HPON, is one of the most promising candidates for NGOA networks due to its ability to serve a large number of subscribers and offer high capacity per user. For these reasons, in this article, we propose HPON architecture offering different degrees of resilience depending on the user profiles (i.e., partial and full protection for residential and business access, respectively). Also, the investment cost of providing resilience for the proposed schemes is investigated considering various protection upgrade road maps. Our results confirm that protecting the shared part of network with a large number of users is required in order to keep the failure impact at an acceptable level, with less than 5 percent increase of investment cost compared to the unprotected case. Meanwhile, the proposed end-to-end protection for business users considerably reduces the risk of service interruption for this type of demanding user without a need to duplicate the deployment cost of an unprotected connection. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the impact of changes in business user percentage and protection upgrade time on the deployment cost. The results may be used as advice on cost-efficient deployment of reliable fiber access networks.

Keyword
Protection, Pon
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-143719 (URN)10.1109/MCOM.2014.6736740 (DOI)000331904900003 ()2-s2.0-84896813304 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 249025 318137
Note

QC 20140328

Available from: 2014-03-28 Created: 2014-03-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
7. Cost Modeling of Backhaul for Mobile Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost Modeling of Backhaul for Mobile Networks
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless heterogeneous networks (HetNets) based on small cells are a cost and energy efficient alternative to provide high capacity to the end users. On the other hand, the cost and energy consumption of backhaul network aggregating data traffic from a large number of base stations may limit the benefits brought by the use of small cell. In HetNet deployments it becomes thus essential to be able to assess the total cost of ownership (TCO) of the backhaul network. This paper presents for the first time a comprehensive cost evaluation methodology to compute the TCO of mobile backhaul networks. The presented model can be instrumental to identify the most critical cost drivers in the backhaul networks and to have a better understanding of the backhaul TCO dynamics when small cells are deployed. The proposed TCO model is then used in a case study where two technology options for the backhaul are considered, i.e., microwave and fiber. The results from the case study show how it is possible to identify the most critical cost factors, thus easing the way towards a cost efficient backhaul design strategy.

Series
IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ISSN 2164-7038
Keyword
Backhaul, total cost of ownership (TCO), cost modeling, fiber, microwave, heterogeneous wireless networks
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159050 (URN)10.1109/ICCW.2014.6881230 (DOI)000346123100067 ()2-s2.0-84906766305 (Scopus ID)978-147994640-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC), JUN 10-14, 2014, Sydney, AUSTRALIA
Note

QC 20150122

Available from: 2015-01-22 Created: 2015-01-20 Last updated: 2015-03-20Bibliographically approved
8. Techno-Economic and Business-Feasibility Modeling of Mobile Backhaul
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-Economic and Business-Feasibility Modeling of Mobile Backhaul
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-162054 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2015-03-20Bibliographically approved
9. Efficient Mobile Backhaul Architecture Supporting Coordinated Multipoint Transmission
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient Mobile Backhaul Architecture Supporting Coordinated Multipoint Transmission
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-162055 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2015-03-20Bibliographically approved

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Mahloo, Mozhgan

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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