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Groundwater vulnerability assessment using process-based models
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The focus of this thesis is on groundwater vulnerability assessment by process-based simulation models and data acquisition for these assessments. A modelling system for intrinsic groundwater vulnerability assessment in water supply areas was developed, consisting of flow- and transport models for the unsaturated zone and the groundwater zone, coupled to a geographical informa-tion system. The system was applied to a water supply area located close to a major road south of Stockholm. Chloride was used as an indicator in determining the vulnerability for groundwater contamination from the road. The approach was useful to illustrate the dynamic change of chlo-ride concentrations both during the stage of continuous application and after the applications was terminated. A structure and content of a database for flow and transport modelling, based on hydrogeological environments, was outlined. An existing hydrogeological parameter database, HPAR at the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), was examined as a potential source of data for the new database. Values for some important parameters needed for groundwater modelling, such as hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity, were lacking in the three municipal HPAR databases that were studied. It was suggested that these data should be added, together with information on the hydrogeological environments, for all geographical positions of interest. Without such minimum information, the efficient use of modelling tools could not be expected.

Typical profiles of three common Swedish hydrogeological environments (sand deposits, glacial till and clay covered areas) were used to represent generic input data to model simulations in the unsaturated zone so that the importance of soil, vegetation type and groundwater levels on turn-over times of conservative contaminants transported by natural recharge could be examined. The same profiles were used to predict the penetration depth of accidental liquid spills that occur at the land surface level. In the case of contaminant transport by natural recharge, water storage in the soil profile and vegetation type played an important role for turnover times. For liquid spills, the hydraulic con-ductivity was found to be of major importance, while the water retention properties were of less importance. Modelling, together with available data sources, were successfully used to demon-strate the vulnerability of different environmental conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , viii, 36 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1022
Keyword [en]
Environmental technology, Database; Groundwater vulnerability; Hydrogeological environment; Process-based models; Penetration depth; Turnover time
Keyword [sv]
Miljöteknik
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234ISBN: 91-7178-084-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-234DiVA: diva2:8001
Public defence
2005-06-03, Sal E2, Lindstedtsvägen 3, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101020Available from: 2005-05-30 Created: 2005-05-30 Last updated: 2010-10-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A system for modelling groundwater contamination in water supply areas - chloride contamination from road de-icing as an example
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A system for modelling groundwater contamination in water supply areas - chloride contamination from road de-icing as an example
2006 (English)In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 37, no 1, 41-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A system for modelling groundwater contamination in water supply areas is presented, consisting of the flow and transport models, MACRO for the unsaturated zone and MOC for the groundwater zone, coupled to the geographical information system, IDRISI. A graphical user interface links the different parts of the system. The system was applied to a water supply area located close to a major road south of Stockholm. Chloride was used as an indicator in determining the risk for groundwater contamination from the road. The future chloride concentration in the aquifer was predicted and the effects of different pumping rates on the chemistry of the water supply well were tested. Modelling results showed that the chloride concentration in the aquifer will increase substantially due to road de-icing and that it will take decades to lower the chloride concentration down to the original background values after an end to the use of de-icing salt. The system may serve as a valuable tool in a planning context. Potential groundwater contamination scenarios can be simulated, and alternative groundwater management strategies can be evaluated.

Keyword
de-icing salt, flow and transport model, geographical information systems, groundwater
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5186 (URN)000235774600004 ()2-s2.0-33644891057 (Scopus ID)
Note

Uppdaterad från "accepted" till published: 20101020. QC 20101020

Available from: 2005-05-30 Created: 2005-05-30 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
2. A hydrogeological database for flow and transport modelling with em-phasis on Swedish conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A hydrogeological database for flow and transport modelling with em-phasis on Swedish conditions
2005 (English)In: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5187 (URN)
Note
QS 2010 QS 20120319Available from: 2005-05-30 Created: 2005-05-30 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
3. Effects of soil, vegetation and ground-water level on hydrogeological turnover times
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of soil, vegetation and ground-water level on hydrogeological turnover times
(English)In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5188 (URN)
Note
QS 20120328Available from: 2005-05-30 Created: 2005-05-30 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
4. Prediction of high rate infiltration in typical Swed-ish soil profiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of high rate infiltration in typical Swed-ish soil profiles
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5189 (URN)
Note
QS 20120327Available from: 2005-05-30 Created: 2005-05-30 Last updated: 2012-03-27Bibliographically approved

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