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Correlation between Injury Pattern and Finite Element Analysis in Biomechanical Reconstructions of Traumatic Brain Injuries
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0980-4051
Experimental Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy, KU Leuven, Belgium.
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
Biomechanics, KU Leuven, Belgium.
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 48, no 7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At present, Finite Element (FE) analyses are often used as a tool to better understand the mechanisms of head injury. Previously, these models have been compared to cadaver experiments, with the next step under development being accident reconstructions. Thus far, the main focus has been on deriving an injury threshold and little effort has been put into correlating the documented injury location with the response displayed by the FE model. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce a novel image correlation method that compares the response of the FE model with medical images.

The injuries shown on the medical images were compared to the strain pattern in the FE model and evaluated by two indices; the Overlap Index (OI) and the Location Index (LI). As the name suggests, OI measures the area which indicates both injury in the medical images and high strain values in the FE images. LI evaluates the difference in center of mass in the medical and FE images. A perfect match would give an OI and LI equal to 1.

This method was applied to three bicycle accident reconstructions. The reconstructions gave an average OI between 0.01 and 0.19 for the three cases and between 0.39 and 0.88 for LI. Performing injury reconstructions are a challenge as the information from the accidents often is uncertain. The suggested method evaluates the response in an objective way which can be used in future injury reconstruction studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 48, no 7
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Research subject
Applied Medical Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-164090DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.02.057ISI: 000353751200014Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84925426031OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-164090DiVA: diva2:803432
Note

QC 20150521

Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Numerical Accident Reconstructions: A Biomechanical Tool to Understand and Prevent Head Injuries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical Accident Reconstructions: A Biomechanical Tool to Understand and Prevent Head Injuries
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a major health and socioeconomic problem throughout the world, with an estimated 10 million deaths and instances of hospitalization annually. Numerical methods such as finite element (FE) methods can be used to study head injuries and optimize the protection, which can lead to a decrease in the number of injuries. The FE head models were initially evaluated for biofidelity by comparing with donated corpses experiments. However, there are some limitations in experiments of corpses, including material degradation after death. One feasible alternative to evaluating head models with living human tissue is to use reconstruction of real accidents. However, the process of accident reconstruction entails some uncertainties since it is not a controlled experiment. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the accident reconstruction process is needed in order to be able to improve the FE human models. Thus, the aim of this thesis was to evaluate and further develop more advanced strategies for accident reconstructions involving head injuries.

A FE head model was used to study head injuries in accidents. Existing bicycle accident data was used, as were hypothetical accident situations for cyclists and pedestrians. A FE bicycle helmet model having different designs was developed to study the protective effect.

An objective method was developed based on the Overlap Index (OI) and Location Index (LI) to facilitate the comparison of FE model responses with injuries visible in medical images. Three bicycle accident reconstructions were performed and the proposed method evaluated. The method showed to have potential to be an objective method to compare FE model response with medical images and could be a step towards improving the evaluation of results from injury reconstructions.

The simulations demonstrated the protective effect of a bicycle helmet. A decrease was seen in the injurious effect on both the brain tissue and the skull. However, the results also showed that the brain tissue strain could be further decreased by modifying the helmet design.

Two different numerical pedestrian models were compared to evaluate whether the more time-efficient rigid body model could be used, instead of a FE pedestrian model, to roughly determine the initial conditions as an accident reconstruction involves some uncertainties. The difference, in terms of the head impact location, rotation and velocity, attributable to the two models was in the same range as differences due to uncertainties in some of the initial parameters, such as vehicle impact velocity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xvi, 88, XIV p.
Series
TRITA-STH : report, ISSN 1653-3836 ; 2015:4
Keyword
Head injuries; Accident Reconstruction; Finite element analysis; Injury prevention; Helmet; Cyclist; Pedestrian; Epidemiology
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Research subject
Applied Medical Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-164091 (URN)978-91-7595-512-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-08, 3-221, Alfred Nobels Allé 10, Huddinge, 09:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

QC 20150414

Available from: 2015-04-14 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2015-04-14Bibliographically approved

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