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The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steel
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. Swerea KIMAB, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7707-5631
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
2015 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 8, no 2, 751-783 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non-metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc.) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Schweiz: MDPI AG , 2015. Vol. 8, no 2, 751-783 p.
Keyword [en]
inclusions, machinability, steel
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-164860DOI: 10.3390/ma8020751ISI: 000352052600026Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84923692993OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-164860DiVA: diva2:806314
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20150422

Available from: 2015-04-20 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Inclusion Characteristics and Their Link to Tool wear in Metal Cutting of Clean Steels Suitable for Automotive Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inclusion Characteristics and Their Link to Tool wear in Metal Cutting of Clean Steels Suitable for Automotive Applications
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis covers some aspects of hard part turning of carburised steels using a poly‑crystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) cutting tool during fine machining. The emphasis is on the influence of the steel cleanliness and the characteristics of non‑metallic inclusions in the workpiece on the active wear mechanisms of the cutting tool. Four carburising steel grades suitable for automotive applications were included, including one that was Ca‑treated.

A superior tool life was obtained when turning the Ca-treated steel. The superior machinability is associated with the deposition of lubricating (Mn,Ca)S and (CaO)x-Al2O3-S slag layers, which are formed on the rake face of the cutting tool during machining. Moreover, the transfer of work material to the rake face crater is characteristic in hard part turning of clean steels. It can be because of the lack of sulfides that protect the cutting edge when turning machinability treated steels. This corresponds to the more pronounced crater wear caused by the low‑sulfur steels than that of the steels with higher sulfur contents. It was also concluded that the composition of the non‑metallic inclusions in the Ca‑treated steel is a more important factor than the inclusion number and size, in hard part turning using a PCBN cutting tool. Also, a 3D analysis after electrolytic extraction was found to give a more precise characterisation of non‑metallic inclusions than the conventional 2D analysis by SEM‑EDS. In turn, better correlations to machinability and mechanical properties can be obtained. Hence, the use of this technique is beneficial for future material development.

Finally, the challenge for future metallurgy is to manufacture high‑performance steels with improved combined properties of mechanical strength and machinability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. 41 p.
Keyword
Tool wear, PCBN, Machinability, Steel, Non-metallic inclusions
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-164875 (URN)978-91-7595-505-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-05-05, Sal Sefström, M131, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20150422

Available from: 2015-04-22 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2015-04-22Bibliographically approved
2. Steel characteristics and their link to chip breaking and tool wear in metal cutting
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Steel characteristics and their link to chip breaking and tool wear in metal cutting
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The vision of this thesis is to study how it is possible to obtain optimised workpieces during metal cutting processes in industry. Specifically, the work is aimed to increase the understanding between the steel characteristics and their link to the chip breaking and tool wear during metal cutting. The emphasis is on the influence of the cleanliness and the characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in the workpiece on the machinability of carburising steel grades. The machinability of a case hardening steel is improved by a M-treatment (additions of Ca). Also, the improved machinability of the M-steels offers an attractive potential to save money which makes it possible to reduce the tooling costs with up to 50%. The improved machinability of Ca-treated steels is correlated to the formation of lubricating slag layers consisting of Ca-enriched sulfide inclusions and oxy-sulfide inclusions, which are formed on the rake face during the machining operation. It is proposed that the formations of slag layers from the workpiece constituents are essential to minimise the chemical degradation of the tool edge due to a contact with the chip. During this process, sulfur minimises the material transfer from the chip flow, whilst Ca-treated impurities have a stabilising effect on the protective deposits made of slag layers.

Since there is a remaining industrial need to increase the production rate, whilst maintaining a high quality of the finished parts, the future production will continue to require extreme demands on the quality of workpieces. If the emphasis is focused on the workpiece, it should be possible to obtain a robust manufacturing process. Therefore, the challenge for future steel metallurgists is to develop high performance grades with optimised combined properties.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna avhandling är att studera hur det är möjligt att framställa optimala ämnen för skärande bearbetning i industriell skala. Målsättningen med arbetet är att öka förståelsen för ståls egenskaper och dess inverkan på spånbrytning och slitage av verktyg vid skärande bearbetning. Avhandlingen fokuserar på kopplingen mellan arbetsstyckets renhet och inneslutningskarakteristik och dess inverkan på skärbarhet hos sätthärdningsstål. Skärbarheten hos vanligt sätthärdningsstål kan förbättras markant genom en Ca-behandling, dvs. en så kallad M-behandling. Den förbättrade skärbarheten hos M-stål möjliggör stora kostnadsbesparingar, som uppskattas kunna reducera verktygskostnader med upp till 50%. Den förbättrade skärbarheten hos M-stål beror på bildningen utav tribologiska skikt som är anrikade med (Mn,Ca)S- och (CaO)x-Al2O3-S-slagg. Dessa tribologiska skikt bildas på skärverktygets spånsida under ingrepp vid skärande bearbetning och består utav vissa atomer som överförts från det bearbetade ämnet till skäret. Bildandet av ett skyddande skikt anses nödvändigt för att undvika att verktygets skäregg utsätts för ett kemiskt angrepp i kontaktytan med spånflödet. Svavel anses minimera att rent arbetsmaterial överförs till skärverktyget medans kalcium-berikade inneslutningar hjälper till att bilda ett stabilt och skyddande tribologiskt skikt.

Det eviga behovet att öka produktionstakten, utan att för dess skull riskera slutproduktens kvalité ställer stora krav på framtidens material. Med utgångspunkt från arbetsstycken så ska det vara möjligt att uppnå en robust industriell produktion. Utmaningen är därför att utveckla högpresterande stål med en förhöjd kombinerad funktionsegenskap.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 73 p.
Keyword
machinability, steel, non-metallic inclusions, skärbarhet, stål, icke-metalliska inneslutningar
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-187156 (URN)978-91-7595-949-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-06-08, Sal B3, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-17 Created: 2016-05-17 Last updated: 2016-05-17Bibliographically approved

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