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Some factors affecting the amount of residual phase lignin during kraft pulping
KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2900-4713
1997 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The amount of lignin which needs to be removed according to the slow residual delignification phase in kraft pulping, i e residual phase lignin, has been studied as a function of the process conditions. The variebles studied were the concentrations of hydroxide ions, hydrogensulfide ions, sodium ions (ionic strength) and temperature. In addition, the amounts of residual phase ligning in the pulping of different lignocellulosic material were compared. Different additives can be applied to the kraft cook to improve the selectivity. Polysulfide sulfur is one of them and the effectt of polysulfide ions on the amount of residual phase lignin in kraft pulping was also investigated.

It is shown, that the amounts of residual phase lignin in constant composition cooks (highliquor-to-wood ratio) of softwood (spruce), hardwood (birch) andgrass (wheat straw) are affected by the same factors in theinvestigated range. The amount of residual phase lignin isstrongly reduced by higher hydroxide ion concentration during the kraft cook and is to some extent decreased by higherhydrogensulfide ion concentration and lower sodium ionconcentration. These effects were not, however, found to bepurely additive for spruce wood, instead interactions occurred.In order to decrease the amount of residual phase lignin, it isessential to have a high concentration of hydrogensulfide ionswhen cooking with a low hydroxide ion concentration. The temperature has no effect on the amount of residual phase ligninin the range investigated.

It is also shown that the lignin reacting according to theslow delignification phase is not a homogeneous lignin sincealteration of the conditions in the cook can make part of itreact as bulk phase lignin. This indicates that most of theresidual phase lignin is determined by the prevailing conditions,which determine how much of the native lignin reacts according tothe bulk and how much according to the residual delignificationmechanism.

Pulping experiments carried out under the same conditions onwheat straw,  birch wood and spruce wood also showed that theamount of residual phase lignin in wheat straw is only 30% of theamount of residual phase lignin in spruce wood, and that the amount of residual phase lignin in birch wood, is5 0% of the amount of residual phase lignin in sprucewood.

The amount of residual phase lignin was affected by apolysulfide treatment. The amount of residual phase lignin was lowered by 30% for spruce wood and 10% for birch wood with apolysulfide treatment, compared with cooks without polysulfide. An explanation for this may be the finding that polysulfide can introduce a carboxylic acid function into the lignin, which will increase its water solubility, and reduce the need for fragmentation. An additional explanation may be the ability of polysulfides to degrade enol ether structures, which are normally more or less stable during kraft pulping.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 1997. , 52 p.
Series
Trita-PMT, 1997:5
Keyword [en]
Deligniflcation, Residual phase lignin, Hydrogensulfide ion, Hydroxide ion, Polysulfides, Ionic strength, Temperature, Lignin, Kraftpulping, Selectivity, viscosity, Kappa number, chemical degradation, Disproportionation
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-2502ISBN: 99-2412642-4 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-2502DiVA: diva2:8104
Public defence
1997-05-22, 00:00 (English)
Note
QC 20100521Available from: 2000-01-01 Created: 2000-01-01 Last updated: 2010-05-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The kinetics of residual delignification and factors affecting the amount of residual lignin during kraft pulping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The kinetics of residual delignification and factors affecting the amount of residual lignin during kraft pulping
1996 (English)In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 22, no 8, J290-J295 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Kraft pulping of softwood can be divided into three phases: the initial, the bulk and the residual delignification phases. The rate of delignification in the residual phase and the amount of lignin to be removed in this slow phase have been studied as a function of the conditions in the kraft cooking of Norwegian spruce chips, Picea abies. The variables studied were concentration of OH-, concentration of HS-, ionic strength and temperature. The amount of lignin remaining undissolved in the wood residue at the transition from bulk to residual delignification is decreased by increasing the concentration of OH- and by increasing the concentration of HS- in the bulk phase. The amount of residual lignin is also decreased by a lower ionic strength in the bulk phase. The temperature in the range of 150 to 180 degrees C affected the lignin content at the transition from bulk to residual delignification but not the amount of residual lignin extrapolated to the beginning of the cook. Only the hydroxide ion concentration and the temperature seem to have an influence on the rate of delignification in the residual phase. The rate of delignification in the residual phase is well described by the following equation: dL(r)/dt = (0.0032 + 0.0020 . [OH-]) (. e) -146 000/8.314 . (1/T - 1/443.15)(Lr).

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12999 (URN)A1996VD41400006 ()
Note
QC 20100521Available from: 2010-05-21 Created: 2010-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Kinetics of the bulk and residual delignification in kraft pulping of birch and factors affecting the amount of residual phase lignin   
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinetics of the bulk and residual delignification in kraft pulping of birch and factors affecting the amount of residual phase lignin   
1997 (English)In: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 12, no 2, 124-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
CHEMICAL PULP, PULPING, BETULA, DELIGNIFICATION, PATE CHIMIQUE, REDUCTION EN PATE, BETULA, DELIGNIFICATION, PASTA QUIMICA, ELABORACION DE PULPA, BETULA, DELIGNIFICACION, BETULACEAE, PROCESSING, PULP, BETULACEAE, PATE CELLULOSIQUE, TRAITEMENT, BETULACEAE, PASTA, PROCESAMIENTO
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12994 (URN)
Note
QC 20100521Available from: 2010-05-21 Created: 2010-05-21 Last updated: 2010-05-21Bibliographically approved
3. A Study of How the Amount of Residual Phase Lignin in Kraft Cooking Depends upon the Conditions in the Cook
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Study of How the Amount of Residual Phase Lignin in Kraft Cooking Depends upon the Conditions in the Cook
1997 (English)In: Nordic Pulp Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 12, no 4, 225- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12996 (URN)
Note
QC 20100521Available from: 2010-05-21 Created: 2010-05-21 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
4. Kinetics of wheat straw delignification in soda and kraft pulping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinetics of wheat straw delignification in soda and kraft pulping
1998 (English)In: Journal of wood chemistry and technology, ISSN 0277-3813, E-ISSN 1532-2319, Vol. 18, no 1, 69-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Kraft and soda delignification kinetics of wheat straw, Triticum aestivum, have been studied as a function of OH- concentration, HS- concentration, and temperature. It was found that about 90% of the lignin is dissolved in the rapid initial phase. The rates of delignification in the bulk and residual phases were found to be similar to those of birch wood, Betula pubescens, The amount of residual phase lignin was found to be considerably less than in birch or spruce, Picea abies, and it was affected by the same factors, A model that accurately describes the delignification of wheat straw was derived.

National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13000 (URN)000072549500005 ()
Note
QC 20100521 Available from: 2010-05-21 Created: 2010-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. The Effect of Polysulfide Pretreatment when Kraft Pulping to Very Low Kappa Numbers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Polysulfide Pretreatment when Kraft Pulping to Very Low Kappa Numbers
1995 (English)In: Nordic Pulp Paper Research Journal, Vol. 10, no 1, 8- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12997 (URN)
Note
QC 20100521Available from: 2010-05-21 Created: 2010-05-21 Last updated: 2010-05-21Bibliographically approved
6. Thermal Decomposition of Inorganic Polysulfides at Kraft Cooking Conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal Decomposition of Inorganic Polysulfides at Kraft Cooking Conditions
1995 (English)In: Nordic Pulp Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 10, no 1, 41- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12998 (URN)
Note
QC 20100521Available from: 2010-05-21 Created: 2010-05-21 Last updated: 2010-05-21Bibliographically approved

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