Chromium released from leather - I: exposure conditions that govern the release of chromium(III) and chromium(VI)
2015 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 72, no 4, 206-215 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background. Approximately 1-3% of the adult population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). Anew restriction in REACH(Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products. Objectives. The aim of this study was to critically assess key experimental parameters in this standard on the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and their relevance for skin exposure. Material and methods. Four differently tanned, unfinished, leather samples were systematically investigated for their release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in relation to surface area, key exposure parameters, temperature, ultraviolet irradiation, and time. Results. Although the total release of Cr was largely unaffected by all investigated parameters, except exposure duration and temperature, the Cr oxidation state was highly dynamic, with reduced amounts of released Cr(VI) with time, owing to the simultaneous release of reducing agents from the leather. Significantly more Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was released from the Cr-tanned leather for all conditions tested, and it continued to be released in artificial sweat up to at least 1 week of exposure. Conclusions. Several parameters were identified that influenced the outcome of the ISO 17075 test.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 72, no 4, 206-215 p.
allergic contact dermatitis, chromium(III), chromium(VI), ISO 17075, leather, metals, occupational, restriction
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165197DOI: 10.1111/cod.12329ISI: 000351622300003PubMedID: 25653094ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84925708663OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-165197DiVA: diva2:810529
QC 201505072015-05-072015-04-242015-05-07Bibliographically approved