Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Large scale integration of graphene transistors for potential applications in the back end of the line
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1234-6060
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
Show others and affiliations
2015 (English)In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 108, 61-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A chip to wafer scale, CMOS compatible method of graphene device fabrication has been established, which can be integrated into the back end of the line (BEOL) of conventional semiconductor process flows. In this paper, we present experimental results of graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) which were fabricated using this wafer scalable method. The carrier mobilities in these transistors reach up to several hundred cm(2) V-1 s(-1). Further, these devices exhibit current saturation regions similar to graphene devices fabricated using mechanical exfoliation. The overall performance of the GFETs can not yet compete with record values reported for devices based on mechanically exfoliated material. Nevertheless, this large scale approach is an important step towards reliability and variability studies as well as optimization of device aspects such as electrical contacts and dielectric interfaces with statistically relevant numbers of devices. It is also an important milestone towards introduting graphene into wafer scale process lines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 108, 61-66 p.
Keyword [en]
Graphene, Transistor, Process integration, Wafer scale
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166314DOI: 10.1016/j.sse.2014.12.014ISI: 000353004400012ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84925599928OAI: diva2:811428
EU, European Research Council, 228229, 307311

QC 20150512

Available from: 2015-05-12 Created: 2015-05-07 Last updated: 2016-06-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Graphene-based Devices for More than Moore Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Graphene-based Devices for More than Moore Applications
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Moore's law has defined the semiconductor industry for the past 50 years. Devices continue to become smaller and increasingly integrated into the world around us. Beginning with personal computers, devices have become integrated into watches, phones, cars, clothing and tablets among other things. These devices have expanded in their functionality as well as their ability to communicate with each other through the internet. Further, devices have increasingly been required to have diverse of functionality. This combination of smaller devices coupled with diversification of device functionality has become known as more than Moore. In this thesis, more than Moore applications of graphene are explored in-depth.

Graphene was discovered experimentally in 2004 and since then has fueled tremendous research into its various potential applications. Graphene is a desirable candidate for many applications because of its impressive electronic and mechanical properties. It is stronger than steel, the thinnest known material, and has high electrical conductivity and mobility. In this thesis, the potentials of graphene are examined for pressure sensors, humidity sensors and transistors.

Through the course of this work, high sensitivity graphene pressure sensors are developed. These sensors are orders of magnitude more sensitive than competing technologies such as silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes. Further, these devices are small and can be scaled aggressively.

Research into these pressure sensors is then expanded to an exploration of graphene's gas sensing properties -- culminating in a comprehensive investigation of graphene-based humidity sensors. These sensors have rapid response and recovery times over a wide humidity range. Further, these devices can be integrated into CMOS processes back end of the line.

In addition to CMOS Integration of these devices, a wafer scale fabrication process flow is established. Both humidity sensors and graphene-based transistors are successfully fabricated on wafer scale in a CMOS compatible process. This is an important step toward both industrialization of graphene as well as heterogeneous integration of graphene devices with diverse functionality. Furthermore, fabrication of graphene transistors on wafer scale provides a framework for the development of statistical analysis software tailored to graphene devices.

In summary, graphene-based pressure sensors, humidity sensors, and transistors are developed for potential more than Moore applications. Further, a wafer scale fabrication process flow is established which can incorporate graphene devices into CMOS compatible process flows back end of the line.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. xxvi, 79 p.
TRITA-ICT, 2016:17
Graphene, Humidity Sensor, Pressure Sensor, GFET, CMOS, BEOL, More than Moore, Integration, Statistics
National Category
Engineering and Technology Nano Technology
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-188134 (URN)978-91-7729-024-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-08-26, Sal C, Isafjordsgatan 22, Electrum 229, 164-40, Kista, 10:00 (English)

QC 20160610

Available from: 2016-06-10 Created: 2016-06-06 Last updated: 2016-06-10Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Smith, Anderson D.Vaziri, SamRodriguez, SaulÖstling, MikaelLemme, Max C.
By organisation
Integrated Devices and Circuits
In the same journal
Solid-State Electronics
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 67 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link