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Cascaded Converters with Gate-Commutated Thyristors: Experimental Verification and Auxiliary Power Supply
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3455-9067
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes an effort to investigate the use of gate-commutated thyristors(GCTs) in cascaded converters. Cascaded converters, such as modularmultilevel converters (M2Cs) and cascaded H-bridge converters (CHBs), haveproved to be especially suitable in high-voltage, high-power applications. Allof the most important advantages of cascaded converters, e.g. redundancy andscalability, can be attributed to the modular structure. Of special interestregarding the choice of semiconductor power devices is the reduced requirementon the switching frequency of individual devices. This brings a shift in thetrade-off between switching and conduction losses, where the latter has moreimportance in cascaded converters than in other topologies. This shift favorsthyristor-type devices like the GCT, which can achieve very low conductionlosses.To quantify the potential gain in the application of GCTs in cascadedconverters the losses have been calculated and a comparison between differentsubmodule implementations has been presented. The comparison has shownthat GCTs can provide 20-30% lower losses compared to insulated-gate bipolartransistors (IGBTs) in a typical HVDC application. In order to verify the lowlosses of GCT-based submodules, extensive work has been put into buildingand testing full-scale submodules employing GCTs. A resonant test circuithas been developed in which the submodules can be tested in steady-stateoperation which allows calorimetric measurements of the losses. The calorimetricmeasurements have verified that the loss calculation was reasonableand not lacking any important components.A drawback of GCTs is that the gate-drive units require much more powerthan gate-drive units for comparable IGBTs. In order to employ GCTs inhigh-voltage cascaded converters some means of supplying this power in thesubmodule must be provided. One option is to take this power from thesubmodule dc-link, but this requires a dc-dc converter capable of high inputvoltages. A tapped-inductor buck converter with a novel, autonomous highsidevalve was developed for this application. The autonomous operation of thehigh-side valve allows reliable operation without galvanic isolation components.A converter with a high-side valve with series-connected MOSFETs capable ofan input voltage of 3 kV has been presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , 47 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2015:021
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166666ISBN: 978-91-7595-581-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-166666DiVA: diva2:811800
Public defence
2015-06-08, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150521

Available from: 2015-05-21 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2015-05-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Loss comparison of different sub-module implementations for modular multilevel converters in HVDC applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Loss comparison of different sub-module implementations for modular multilevel converters in HVDC applications
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2011-14th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE 2011) / [ed] EPE Association, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a loss calculation and comparison between different submodule topologies and semiconductor choices for a Modular Multilevel Converter in a 1.1GW, ±320kV HVDC application.

Keyword
HVDC transmission, Insulated gate bipolar transistors, Semiconductor diodes, Switches, Switching loss, Topology
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-40867 (URN)000308003504018 ()2-s2.0-80053502095 (Scopus ID)978-1-61284-167-0 (ISBN)978-90-75815-15-3 (ISBN)
Conference
EPE 2011
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20110930

Available from: 2011-09-21 Created: 2011-09-21 Last updated: 2016-02-26Bibliographically approved
2. Loss comparison of different sub-module implementations for modular multilevel converters in HVDC applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Loss comparison of different sub-module implementations for modular multilevel converters in HVDC applications
2012 (English)In: EPE Journal: European Power Electronics and Drives Journal, ISSN 0939-8368, Vol. 22, no 3, 32-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a loss calculation and comparison between different submodule topologies and semiconductor choices for a Modular Multilevel Converter in a 1.1 GW, ± 320 kV HVDC application. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of the losses for three different M2C implementations using both insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and integrated gatecommutated thyristors (IGCTs) is presented. The losses for six different submodule realizations are shown in a loss breakdown in Fig. 7. It shows that the very low conduction loss of the IGCT is to some degree offset by higher switching losses and extra turn-on snubber losses but that the IGCT implementations provide significantly lower losses than their IGBT counterparts. The loss break-down also shows that clamp-double submodules and full-bridge submodules suffer from approximately 25% and 50% additional losses respectively as compared to the half-bridge case. An experimental verification of the loss calculations has been performed using a down-scaled M2C prototype. The results show a very good agreement between calculations and measured losses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Power Electronics and Drives Association, 2012
Keyword
modular multilevel converter, high voltage direct current, IGCT
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105828 (URN)000314624000005 ()2-s2.0-84873194963 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20130218

Available from: 2012-11-27 Created: 2012-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. High-voltage tapped-inductor buck converter auxiliary power supply for cascaded converter submodules
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-voltage tapped-inductor buck converter auxiliary power supply for cascaded converter submodules
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, ECCE 2012, IEEE , 2012, 19-25 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper firstly presents a discussion of the requirements for an auxiliary power supply for high-power modular multilevel converter submodules. Next, some of the most challenging problems in designing a low power high voltage step-down converter are presented. Further, a suitable topology, the tapped-inductor buck converter, that overcomes most of the problems is analyzed. Both analytical expressions describing the operation and circuit simulations are presented. Finally, an experimental evaluation of a 3 kV, 100W prototype converter utilizing an autonomous high-voltage switch is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
Inductors, Logic gates, Snubbers, Switches, Topology, Zero voltage switching
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105824 (URN)10.1109/ECCE.2012.6342417 (DOI)000312901700004 ()2-s2.0-84870940625 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-0801-4 (ISBN)
Conference
4th Annual IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, ECCE 2012; Raleigh, NC; 15 September 2012 through 20 September 2012
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20130125

Available from: 2012-11-27 Created: 2012-11-27 Last updated: 2016-02-26Bibliographically approved
4. Design and evaluation of tapped inductors for high-voltage auxiliary power supplies for modular multilevel converters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and evaluation of tapped inductors for high-voltage auxiliary power supplies for modular multilevel converters
2012 (English)In: 15th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference and Exposition, EPE-PEMC 2012 ECCE Europe, IEEE , 2012, DS1b.231-DS1b.235 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Tapped-inductor buck converters can provide large step-down ratios at high efficiency and are well suited in auxiliary power supplies for modular multilevel converter cells supplying gate drive units etc. In this paper the design and testing of three low-leakage tapped inductors for use in a 3kV, 100W buck converter is described.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Keyword
tapped inductor, modular multilevel converter, leakage inductance
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105822 (URN)10.1109/EPEPEMC.2012.6397223 (DOI)000337270600033 ()2-s2.0-84874242677 (Scopus ID)978-146731971-3 (ISBN)
Conference
15th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference and Exposition, EPE-PEMC 2012 ECCE Europe;Novi Sad;4 September 2012 through 6 September 2012
Note

QC 20121129

Available from: 2012-11-29 Created: 2012-11-27 Last updated: 2015-06-11Bibliographically approved
5. Modeling and control of a tapped-inductor buck converter with pulse frequency modulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and control of a tapped-inductor buck converter with pulse frequency modulation
2014 (English)In: Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2014 IEEE, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, 3672-3678 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The tapped-inductor buck (TI-buck) converter has shown to be a suitable solution for auxiliary power supply for modular multilevel converter submodules. Such application features a large step-down voltage conversion, made at relatively low output power. This converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode with zero voltage switching of the high-voltage valve. This paper treats the dynamic behaviour of the aforementioned converter. First, an average output current model of the converter is developed and a small signal model is obtained. Then, a closed-loop output voltage control, which uses the switching frequency as control variable, is designed and implemented using a microcontroller. Measurements on a down-scaled prototype shows that the control system provides a well-controlled average output voltage, which is stable under significant load variation. Finally, a solution for implementing the start-up of the converter is presented and tested.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2014
Keyword
power convertors, power inductors, pulse frequency modulation, auxiliary power supply, closed-loop output voltage control, modular multilevel converter submodules, pulse frequency modulation, tapped-inductor buck converter, Gain, Load modeling, Logic gates, Mathematical model, Prototypes;Switches, Voltage control
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165409 (URN)
Conference
Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2014 IEEE
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150521

Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-05-21Bibliographically approved
6. High-Voltage Tapped-Inductor Buck Converter Utilizing an Autonomous High-Side Switch
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Voltage Tapped-Inductor Buck Converter Utilizing an Autonomous High-Side Switch
2015 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 62, no 5, 2868-2878 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A high-voltage tapped-inductor buck converter utilizing a novel autonomous high-voltage valve is presented in this paper. Its application as auxiliary power supply for high-power cascaded-converter submodules is discussed, followed by a presentation of the most challenging problems in designing a low-power high-voltage step-down converter. The TI-buck converter topology is analyzed, which together with the novel autonomous high-voltage valve overcomes most of the problems. Analytical expressions describing the operation as well as circuit simulations are presented. Finally, an experimental evaluation of a 3-kV 70-W prototype converter utilizing the proposed autonomous high-voltage valve with series-connected super-junction MOSFETs is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2015
Keyword
DC-DC power converters, Inductors, Logic gates, Switches, Topology, Valves, Zero voltage switching, Autonomous switch, Tapped-inductor buck converter, autonomous switch, cascaded converter, high-voltage dc-dc converter, high-voltage dc-dc converter, modular multilevel converter, modular multilevel converter (M2C), quasi-resonant converter, quasiresonant converter, series connection, super-junction MOSFET, synchronous rectification, tapped-inductor buck (TI-buck) converter
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165390 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2014.2365157 (DOI)000352706000021 ()2-s2.0-84927608847 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150430

Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
7. Resonant Test Circuit for High-Power Cascaded Converter Submodules
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resonant Test Circuit for High-Power Cascaded Converter Submodules
2013 (English)In: Proc. European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE), 2013., IEEE , 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a test circuit and methodology suitable for testing high-power half-bridge submodules such as would be used in cascaded converters for high-voltage dc converters. The circuit utilizes a series resonant tank and two half-bridge submodules with voltage and impedance cancellation in order to minimize hardware requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2013
Keyword
HVDC power convertors, resonant power convertors, testing, cascaded converters, high power cascaded converter submodules, high power half bridge submodules, high voltage dc converters, resonant test circuit, series resonant tank, Capacitors, HVDC transmission, RLC circuits, Resonant frequency, Switches, Testing, Voltage control, HVDC, High voltage power converters, IGCT, Test bench
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering; SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165395 (URN)10.1109/EPE.2013.6631990 (DOI)2-s2.0-84890141622 (Scopus ID)
Conference
European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE), 2013.
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150521

Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2016-02-26Bibliographically approved
8. Implementation and testing of high-power IGCT-based cascaded-converter cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation and testing of high-power IGCT-based cascaded-converter cells
2014 (English)In: Proc. Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2014 IEEE, IEEE , 2014, 5355-5359 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the design and implementation of cascaded-converters cells based on integrated gate-commutated thyristor (IGCT) half-bridges. The cell design is presented together with a discussion of means to supply gate drive power and as well as the cooling of the cell components. Also, the operation of the cells in a high-power resonant test circuit is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2014
Keyword
power electronics, power supplies to apparatus, thyristor convertors, cascaded-converter cells, high-power IGCT, high-power resonant test circuit, integrated gate-commutated thyristor half-bridges, supply gate drive power, Capacitors, Cooling, HVDC transmission, Logic gates, RLC circuits, Resonant frequency, Valves
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165398 (URN)10.1109/ECCE.2014.6954135 (DOI)2-s2.0-84934312321 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2014 IEEE
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150521

Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2016-02-26Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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