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Improving energy and climate indicators for the steel industry: the case of Sweden
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3618-1259
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7123-1824
SSAB EMEA AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandvik AB, Sandviken, Sweden.
Show others and affiliations
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, 581-592 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy and climate indicators are required for monitoring and controlling the effectiveness of regional as well as national initiatives towards increasing energy efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Indicators are also needed for monitoring measures implemented within companies. Recent studies show that traditional energy efficiency indicators do not capture product differentiation or value creation in the steel industry, while observed trends capture structural shifts instead. In this study, methods combining physical and techno-economic perspectives on energy and CO2 efficiency are proposed for alleviating these problems. The methods were evaluated using data from three Swedish steel producers. The results compensate for structural shifts when focused on physical production. When focused on economic production, the methods represent the value creation of the companies more strongly than traditional indicators. The proposed methods may be useful complements to traditional indicators for monitoring energy and CO2 efficiency. However, the trends show strong links with the economic climate, which may reduce companies’ possibilities of using the indicators for monitoring their own performance. The study confirms the high complexity in monitoring energy and CO2 efficiency within steel companies focused on high-value market segments. Further research is required in exploring issues related to data confidentiality, product portfolios and processes represented in the method, influence of external factors, and aggregating indicators at sectoral level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015. Vol. 107, 581-592 p.
Keyword [en]
energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, iron and steel, indicators
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166749DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.05.031ISI: 000363071000057Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84942984054OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-166749DiVA: diva2:812058
Projects
Robusta energi- och klimatindikatorer för stålindustrin
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 36365-1
Note

QC 20150615

Available from: 2015-05-15 Created: 2015-05-15 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Tracking Emissions Reductions and Energy Efficiency in the Steel Industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracking Emissions Reductions and Energy Efficiency in the Steel Industry
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The iron and steel industry has become increasingly globalised. Market conditions are also changing and de-carbonisation of production is challenging.

The objective of this thesis is to assess how energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reductions can be promoted and effectively monitored in the steel industry. The thesis contributes with analyses based on the Malmquist Productivity Index for a top-down analysis of the energy efficiency of EU Member States’ iron and steel production, and Partial Least Squares regression for bottom-up assessments of different monitoring tools. The thesis also contributes with a scrap availability assessment module to enhance the energy system model ETSAP-TIAM.

The first phase of the research showed that future production needs to shift towards innovative low-CO2 technologies even when all available recycled material is fully used. Techniques using carbon capture and storage (CCS) as well as hydrogen-based technologies can be expected to become economically viable under tightened climate policies.

The second phase of the research showed that current indicators are insufficient. System boundaries of energy use and emissions data do not align with production statistics. Indicators based on energy use or emissions in relation to production in physical terms may be useful to track specific processes. However, current indicators fail to reflect the companies’ product mix. Enhanced energy and climate indicators that adjust for the product mix provide better estimates while failing to reflect the increasing globalisation.

Effective monitoring of industrial transformation will be increasingly important as pressure from climate policy via global CO2-pricing is unlikely in the short term. Current or enhanced indicators do not fully capture industrial transformation and are not recommended. Future research should focus on defining indicators to estimate energy use and emissions along industrial value chains in climate policy contexts.

Abstract [sv]

Järn- och stålindustrin har blivit alltmer globaliserad. Marknadsvillkoren förändras samtidigt som utfasningen av fossila bränslen är utmanande.

Målet med den här avhandlingen är att bedöma hur energieffektivitet och växthusgasutsläppsminskningar kan främjas och effektivt utvärderas inom stålindustrin. Avhandlingen bidrar med analyser baserade Malmquists produktivitetsindex för att analysera energieffektivitet av EU:s medlemsstaters järn- och stålproduktion, och partiell minsta- kvadrat-regression för att bedöma olika utvärderingsmått. Avhandlingen bidrar även med en modul som bedömer skrottillgång för att förbättra energisystemmodellen ETSAP-TIAM.

I en första fas visade forskningen att framtida produktion behöver ställas om mot innovativa teknologier med låga CO2-utsläpp även när allt tillgängligt återvunnet material används fullt ut. Tekniker som använder koldioxidinfångning och -lagring (CCS) samt vätebaserade teknologier kan förväntas bli ekonomiskt försvarbara under åtstramade klimatpolitiska styrmedel.

I en andra fas visade forskningen att nuvarande indikatorer är otillräckliga. Systemgränser för energianvändnings- och växthusgasutsläppsdata stämmer inte överens med produktionsstatistik. Indikatorer utifrån energianvändning eller utsläpp i relation till fysisk produktion kan vara användbara för att följa upp specifika processer. Nuvarande indikatorer lyckas dock inte spegla företagens produktmix. Förbättrade energi- och klimatindikatorer som justerar för produktmixen ger bättre uppskattningar, men speglar inte branschens ökande globalisering.

Effektiv utvärdering av industriell transformation blir alltmer viktig då påtryckning från klimatpolitiska styrmedel via global CO2-prissättning är kortsiktigt osannolik. Nuvarande eller förbättrade indikatorer fångar inte industriell transformation fullt ut och rekommenderas inte. Framtida forskning bör fokusera på att definiera indikatorer som uppskattar energianvändning och växthusgasutsläpp längs industriella värdekedjor. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 98 p.
Series
TRITA-ECS Report, 17/01
Keyword
energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, indicators, iron and steel industry, systems analysis, energieffektivitet, växthusgasutsläppsminskning, indikatorer, järn- och stålbranschen, systemanalys
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205882 (URN)978-91-7729-382-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-02, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170428

Available from: 2017-04-28 Created: 2017-04-28 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved

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