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Device-to-Device Communications for Future Cellular Networks: Challenges, Trade-Offs, and Coexistence
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2370-4567
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The steep growth in mobile data traffic has gained a lot of attention in recent years. With current infrastructure deployments and radio resources, operators will not be able to cope with the upcoming demands. Consequently, discussions of the next generation of mobile networks, referred to as the fifth generation (5G), have started in both academia and industry. In addition to more capacity, stringent requirements for improving energy efficiency, decreasing delays, and increasing reliability have been envisioned in 5G. Many solutions have been put forward, one of them being device-to-device (D2D) communications where users in close proximity can transmit directly to one another bypassing the base station (BS).

In this thesis, we identify trade-offs and challenges of integrating D2D communications into cellular networks and propose potential solutions. To maximize gains from such integration, resource allocation and interference management are key factors. We start by introducing cooperation between D2D and cellular users in order to minimize any interference between the two user types and identifying the scenarios where this cooperation can be beneficial. It is shown that an increase in the number of cellular users within the coverage area and in the size of the cell is associated with a higher probability of cooperation. With this cooperation, we can potentially increase the number of connected devices, reduce the delay, increase the cell sum rate, and offload an overloaded cell.

Next, we consider D2D communications underlaying the uplink of cellular networks. In such a scenario, any potential gain from resource sharing (time, frequency, or space) is determined by how the interference is managed. The quality and performance of the interference management techniques depend on the availability of the channel state information (CSI) and the location of nodes as well as the frequency of updates regarding such information. The more information is required, the more signaling is needed, which results in higher power consumption by the users. We investigate the trade-off between the availability of full CSI, which necessitates instantaneous information, and that of limited CSI, which requires infrequent updates. Our results show that with limited CSI, a good performance (in terms of the sum rate of both user types) can be achieved if a small performance loss is tolerated by cellular users. In addition, we propose a novel approach for interference management which only requires the information on the number of D2D users without any knowledge about their CSI. This blind approach can achieve a small outage probability with very low computational complexity when the number of scheduled D2D users is small.

We then study the problem of mode selection, i.e., if a user should transmit in the D2D mode or in the conventional cellular mode. We identify the decision criteria for both overlay and underlay scenarios with two different objectives. We find out that the D2D communication is beneficial in macro cells or at cell boundaries. The area in which D2D mode is optimal varies with the objective of the network, transmit power, required quality-of-service, and the number of BS antennas.

In the second part of this thesis, we study the effects of integration and coexistence of underlay D2D communications with another promising technology proposed for 5G, namely massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO). Potential benefits of both technologies are known individually, but the possibility of and performance gains from their coexistence are not adequately addressed. We evaluate the performance of this hybrid network in terms of energy efficiency and the average sum rate. Comprehensive analysis reveals that the performance highly depends on the D2D user density. We conclude that underlay D2D communications can only coexist with massive MIMO systems in the regime of low D2D user density. By introducing a high number of D2D users, gains from the massive MIMO technology degrade rapidly, and therefore in this case, the D2D communications should use the overlay approach rather than the underlay, or the network should only allow a subset of D2D transmissions to be active at a time.

Abstract [sv]

Den stora ökningen i mobildatatrafik de senaste åren har tilldragit sig mycket intresse. Med nuvarande infrastruktur och radioresurser kommer inte mobiloperatörerna att kunna hantera de kommande kraven. Därför har diskussioner kring den femte generationens (5G) mobila nätverk startat inom både akademin och industrin. Utöver högre kapacitet så kommer strikta krav på ökad energieffektivitet, minskad fördröjning samt ökad tillförlitlighet att planeras för 5G. En av många lösningar som har föreslagits är enhet-till-enhetskommunikation (device-to-device communications, D2D, på engelska), vilket innebär att närliggande mobilanvändare kan sända direkt till varandra utan att gå genom basstationen. 

I denna avhandling identifierar vi kompromisser och problem kring, samt föreslår lösningar för, integrering av D2D-kommunikation i cellulära nätverk. Viktiga faktorer för att maximera vinsten av sådan integrering är resursallokering och störningshantering. Avhandlingen börjar med att beskriva samarbetet mellan D2D- och cellulära användare för att minska störningen mellan de två användartyperna, samt för att identifiera scenarier där denna typ av samarbete kan vara fördelaktigt. Vi visar att samarbetssannolikheten ökar med antalet cellulära användare i täckningsområdet, samt när cellstorleken ökar. Denna typ av samarbete kan användas för att öka antalet ansluta enheter, minska fördröjningen, öka cellsummadatataken eller avlasta överlastade celler. 

Härnäst studerar vi D2D-kommunikation underliggande upplänken i cellulära nätverk. I ett sådant scenario bestäms eventuell vinst från resursdelning (t.ex. i tid, frekvens eller rymd) av hur störningen hanteras. Kvaliteten och prestandan hos störningshanteringen beror på tillgängligheten av kanalkännedom och information om nodernas position, samt uppdateringsfrekvensen för dessa. Ju mer information som behövs, desto mer signalering krävs, vilket leder till högre effektförbrukning hos användarna. Vi undersöker kompromissen mellan fullt tillgänglig kanalkännedom, vilket kräver momentan information, och ett scenario där kanalkännedomen är begränsad, vilket enbart kräver uppdatering med låg frekvens. Våra resultat visar att god summadatatakt kan uppnås när enbart begränsad kanalkännedom är tillgänglig, om en liten prestandaförlust tillåts för cellulära användare. Vi föreslår dessutom en ny metod för störningshantering som enbart kräver information om antalet D2D-användare, utan vetskap om deras kanalkännedom. Denna blinda metod kan uppnå hög täckningssannolikhet med låg beräkningskomplexitet när antalet schemalagda D2D-användare är lågt.

Vi studerar även lägesvalsproblemet, dvs. om en användare ska sända i D2D-läge eller i konventionellt cellulärt läge. Vi karaktäriserar beslutskriterierna för både överliggande och underliggande scenarier med två olika objektivfunktioner och visar att D2D-kommunikation är fördelaktig i makroceller samt vid cellkanterna. Området för D2D-optimalitet varierar med objektivfunktionen för nätverket, sändeffekten, servicekvalitetskraven och antalet basstationsantenner. 

I den andra delen av avhandlingen så studerar vi effekter kring integrering och samexistens av underliggande D2D-kommunikation med en annan lovande teknologi för 5G, nämligen massiv multiple input-multiple output (massiv MIMO). De individuella fördelarna för de två teknologierna är välkända, men eventuella prestandavinster när teknologierna samexisterar har inte studeras tillräckligt. Vi undersöker prestanda i detta hybridnätverk i termer av energieffektivitet och genomsnittlig summadatatakt. En noggrann analys visar att prestandan beror på tätheten av D2D-användare. Vi drar slutsatsen att underliggande D2D-kommunikation bara kan samexistera med massiv MIMO när tätheten av D2D-användare är låg. När det existerar många D2D-användare minskas prestandavinsten från massiv MIMO snabbt och därför bör D2D-kommunikationen ske i överliggande läge istället för underliggande läge. Alternativt kan nätverket tillåta att enbart en delmängd av D2D-sändningar är aktiva samtidigt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , x, 53 p.
Series
Trita-ICT, 2015:07
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168145ISBN: 978-91-7595-572-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-168145DiVA: diva2:814501
Public defence
2015-06-15, Sal C, KTH-ICT, Electrum, Kista, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20150529

Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Cooperative Device-to-Device Communications in the Downlink of Cellular Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Device-to-Device Communications in the Downlink of Cellular Networks
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2014, 2265-2270 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose a cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications framework in order to combat the problem of congestion in crowded communication environments. The idea is to allow a D2D transmitter to act as an in-band relay for a cellular link and at the same time transmit its own data by employing superposition coding in the downlink. Cooperation between the cellular link and D2D transmitter eases down the requirement on the interference. The main benefit of the proposed method is in increasing the number of connections per unit area with the same spectrum usage. It could also be beneficial to offload over-loaded cells. We formulate our problem to minimize the assigned power for cooperation while making sure the cellular user’s performance does not degrade. Our results show that cooperation possibilities and improvement in overall cell capacity increase with the number of cellular users within the cell as well as the cell size.

Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1525-3511
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-139017 (URN)10.1109/WCNC.2014.6952682 (DOI)9781479930838 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2014; Istanbul; Turkey; 6 April 2014 through 9 April 2014
Projects
Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for Twenty-twenty (2020) Information Society (METIS)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20150529

Available from: 2013-12-23 Created: 2013-12-23 Last updated: 2015-06-11Bibliographically approved
2. Interference management for multiple device-to-device communications underlaying cellular networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interference management for multiple device-to-device communications underlaying cellular networks
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 223-227 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We study the problem of interference management for device-to-device (D2D) communications where multiple D2D users may coexist with one cellular user. The problem is to optimize the transmit power levels of D2D users to maximize the cell throughput while preserving the signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SINR) performance for the cellular user. This is the so-called multi rate power control problem. We investigate the problem under two assumptions, the availability of the instantaneous or average channel state information (CSI) at the base station. In the first case, D2D transmit power levels adapt to fast fading, whereas in the second case, they only adapt to slow fading. In the latter assumption, the cellular user has a maximum outage probability requirement. With numerical results, we study the trade-off between the signaling overhead, that is frequent CSI feedbacks, and the overall system performance, that is the maximum achievable cell capacity, for D2D communications underlying cellular networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Keyword
D2D communications, Device-to-Device communications, Deviceto-device (D2D) communication, Interference management, Outage probability, Power control problem, Signal to noise plus interference ratio, Signaling overheads
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-128565 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC.2013.6666135 (DOI)000346481200042 ()2-s2.0-84893296293 (Scopus ID)978-146736235-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE 24th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2013; London; United Kingdom; 8 September 2013 through 11 September 2013
Projects
Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for Twenty-twenty (2020) Information Society (METIS)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

QC 20131108

Available from: 2013-09-13 Created: 2013-09-13 Last updated: 2015-12-03Bibliographically approved
3. Interference Constrained Device-to-Device Communications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interference Constrained Device-to-Device Communications
2014 (English)In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2014, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, 5245-5250 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper considers a scenario in which multiple device-to-device (D2D) users can reuse the uplink resources of a cellular network to transmit directly to their corresponding receivers. The aggregated interference from the D2D users is limited by applying a threshold on the allowable interference in the base station. The problem is solved under two types of constraints, namely, the peak interference and average interference constraints. In the former, we assume that full channel state information (CSI) is available at the base station, and we optimize the allowable transmit power for the D2D users so that the number of coexisting D2D communications is maximized. We further define a quality-of-service constraint for the D2D users. In practice, however, it is difficult to have complete CSI at the base station as it imposes heavy signaling overhead. Therefore, in the latter scenario, we assume that no knowledge about the location of D2D users and their CSI are available at the base station. This approach does not impose any signaling overhead. Our results show that even with no CSI knowledge, we are able to improve the system performance in terms of throughput by allowing coexisting D2D communications while satisfying the cellular user's constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2014
Keyword
Base stations, Quality of service, Cellular network, D2D communications, Device-to-Device communications, Interference constraints, Signaling overheads, Transmit power
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-143898 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2014.6884154 (DOI)2-s2.0-84906996421 (Scopus ID)978-147992003-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 1st IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2014; Sydney, NSW; Australia; 10 June 2014 through 14 June 2014
Projects
Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for Twenty-twenty (2020) Information Society (METIS)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeWireless@kth
Note

QC 20140922

Available from: 2014-04-01 Created: 2014-04-01 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved
4. Closed-Form Optimality Characterization of Network-Assisted Device-to-Device Communications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Closed-Form Optimality Characterization of Network-Assisted Device-to-Device Communications
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper considers the mode selection problem for network-assisted device-to-device (D2D) communications with multiple antennas at base station. We study transmission in both dedicated and shared frequency bands. Given the type of resources (i.e., dedicated or shared), the user equipment (UE) decides to transmit in the conventional cellular mode or directly to its corresponding receiver in D2D mode. We formulate this problem under two different objectives. The first problem is to maximize the quality-of-service (QoS) given a transmit power, and the second problem is to minimize the transmit power given a QoS requirement. We derive closed-form results for the optimal decision and show that the two problem formulations behave differently. Taking a geometrical approach, we study the area around the transmitter UE where the receiving UE should be to have D2D mode optimality, and how it is affected by the transmit power, QoS, and the number of base station antennas.

Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC, ISSN 1525-3511 ; 6952080
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-139018 (URN)10.1109/WCNC.2014.6952080 (DOI)2-s2.0-84912137291 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Istanbul, Turkey
Note

QC 20140509

Available from: 2013-12-23 Created: 2013-12-23 Last updated: 2015-06-11Bibliographically approved
5. Energy Efficiency and Sum Rate when Massive MIMO meets Device-to-Device Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Efficiency and Sum Rate when Massive MIMO meets Device-to-Device Communication
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2015, 627-632 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161199 (URN)10.1109/ICCW.2015.7247251 (DOI)000380459900106 ()2-s2.0-84947737063 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), London, UK, June 2015
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20150529

Available from: 2015-03-09 Created: 2015-03-09 Last updated: 2016-12-22Bibliographically approved
6. Energy Efficiency and Sum Rate Tradeoffs for Massive MIMO Systems with Underlaid Device-to-Device Communications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Efficiency and Sum Rate Tradeoffs for Massive MIMO Systems with Underlaid Device-to-Device Communications
Show others...
2016 (English)In: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, ISSN 1687-1472, E-ISSN 1687-1499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we investigate the coexistence of two technologies that have been put forward for the fifth generation (5G) of cellular networks, namely, network-assisted device-to-device (D2D) communications and massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output). Potential benefits of both technologies are known individually, but the tradeoffs resulting from their coexistence have not been adequately addressed. To this end, we assume that D2D users reuse the downlink resources of cellular networks in an underlay fashion. In addition, multiple antennas at the BS are used in order to obtain precoding gains and simultaneously support multiple cellular users using multiuser or massive MIMO technique. Two metrics are considered, namely the average sum rate (ASR) and energy efficiency (EE). We derive tractable and directly computable expressions and study the tradeoffs between the ASR and EE as functions of the number of BS antennas, the number of cellular users and the density of D2D users within a given coverage area. Our results show that both the ASR and EE behave differently in scenarios with low and high density of D2D users, and that coexistence of underlay D2D communications and massive MIMO is mainly beneficial in low densities of D2D users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keyword
D2D communications; Massive MIMO; Coexistence; Energy efficiency; Stochastic geometry
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168142 (URN)10.1186/s13638-016-0678-1 (DOI)000391615200001 ()2-s2.0-84981289080 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Wireless@kth
Note

QC 20160816

Available from: 2015-05-27 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved

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