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Contributions to Variable Fidelity MDO Framework for Collaborative and Integrated Aircraft Design
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics. (flygteknik)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4991-5503
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thesis develops computational tools for early stages of the aircraft design process. The work focuses on a framework which allows several design teams concurrently to develop a baseline concept into a configuration which meets requirements and whose aerodynamics has been assessed by flight simulation. To this end, a data base format suggested by the German Aerospace Center DLR was adopted in the CEASIOM system, developed in the EU 6th Framework Program, enabling more accurate transonic analysis and tabulation of forces and moments as well as control surface authority assessment. Results from simple, fast models are combined with computationally expensive full CFD results by co-Kriging to speed up productionof the aero-data for flight simulation.

Non-linear optimization methods in wing design play an increasingly important role together with computational aerodynamics. High performance computing enables the use of high-fidelity non-linear flow predictions in optimization loops. It is argued that the optimization tools should allow the engineer to influence the process by setting up suitable target pressure distributions for the shape to approach, combined with steps to minimize drag under suitable constraints on geometry, forces, and moments. The simulation framework incorporated into CEASIOM was applied to a number of configurations, conventional as well as un-conventional, such as an a-symmetric twin prop, a canard-configured transonic cruiser, and a novel chinrudder concept for transonic airliners. Aerodynamic shape design by the developed methods was applied to the standard M6 benchmark wing, a joined-wing concept, a wing-tip, and a blended wing-body.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen utvecklat beräkningsmoduler för tidiga stadier i flygplanskonstruktionsprocessen. Arbetet kocentreras på ett program-ramverk som låter flera designteam samtidigt utveckla en grund-modell till en konfiguration som uppfyller ställda krav och vars aerodynamik har undersökts med flygsimulering. För att nå detta mål antogs ett data-bas format utarbetat av DLR (German Aerospace Center) i CEASIOM-programpaketet som utvecklats i EUs sjätte ramprogram. Det möjliggjorde noggrannare analys och framtagning av tabeller över krafter och moment liksom bedömning av styrytors funktion i transoniskt fartområde. Resultat från enkla, snabba beräknngsmodeller kombineras via co-Kriging med beräkningsmässigt dyra CFD-körningar för att snabbt ta fram aero-data som behövs för flygsimuleringen.

Icke-linjär optimering spelar allt större roll i ving-formgivning, tillsammans med numerisk aerodynamik. Högpresterande datorer medger användning av noggranna icke-linjära strömningsmodeller också i optimerings-slingor. Det argumenteras för att optimerings-verktygen skall ge ingenjörerna direkt inflytande över processen genom definition av fördelaktiga tryckfördelningar som vingformen ska åstadkomma, kombinerat med steg som minimerar luftmotstånd under bivillkor på geometri, krafter och moment.

Simulerings-ramverket implementerat i CEASIOM tillämpas så på ett antal konfigurationer, konventionella såväl som o-konventionella: ett osymmetriskt tvåmotorigt propellerplan, och större transoniska flygplan, ett för Mach 0.97 med canardvinge, och ett nytt koncept med hak-roder.

Aerodynamisk formgivning med de utvecklade metoderna tillämpas på standardfallet M6-vingen, en transonisk dubbel-vinge, en vingtipp, och en flygande vinge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xx, 101 p.
Series
TRITA-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2015:27
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168169ISBN: 978-91-7595-606-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-168169DiVA: diva2:814560
Public defence
2015-06-12, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
SimSACNOVEMOR
Note

QC 20150528

Available from: 2015-05-28 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2015-05-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Transonic airfoil and wing design using inverse and direct methods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transonic airfoil and wing design using inverse and direct methods
2015 (English)In: 53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Kissimmee, Florida: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A hybrid inverse/direct-optimization method for subsonic/transonic airfoil and wing shape design is presentedwith application to a range of airfoil and wing cases, in preparation for the test cases defined for the Special Sessionof SciTech 2015. The method is hybrid in the sense that it combines the traditional inverse design technique witha gradient-based procedure to approach the optimum aerodynamic surface. This paper emphasizes the first part, thedevelopment of SCID, the Surface Curvature Inverse Design method, the theory upon which it is based, includingmany of the details involved with shocks, smoothing and cross flow. The application of SCID to wing design posesmany challenges, and how they are met is discussed in the context of a number of inverse design test cases for airfoilsand wings. But it also includes results from the adjoint optimization and compares them. The procedure workswell for airfoils and the twist optimization for wings. The real benchmarks for our hybrid approach are the threeOptimization Discussion Group design problems. Solutions are presented for the drag minimization of the airfoil testcases along with the wing twist optimization problem, and conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. A swept-back transonic wing is designed by SCID with encouraging results, showing that SCID works fine with wings. Workhas started on the drag minimization of the CRM wing in transonic flight, and final results will be presented in a futurepaper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kissimmee, Florida: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2015
Series
53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting
Keyword
Aerodynamics, wing optimization, inverse design, transonic
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168150 (URN)10.2514/6.2015-1943 (DOI)2-s2.0-84982958631 (Scopus ID)978-1-62410-343-8 (ISBN)
Conference
53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting
Note

QC 20150527

Available from: 2015-05-27 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
2. Hybrid feedback design for subsonic and transonic airfoils and wings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid feedback design for subsonic and transonic airfoils and wings
2014 (English)In: 52nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting - AIAA Science and Technology Forum and Exposition, SciTech 2014, National Harbor, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A hybrid inverse/optimization method for subsonic/transonic airfoil and wing shapedesign is presented with application to a range of airfoil and wing cases, in preparation forthe test cases defined for the Special Session of SciTech 2014. The method is hybrid in thesense that it combines the traditional inverse design technique with an optimization pro-cedure that determines the optimum target pressure distribution. This paper emphasizesthe first part, the development of SCID, the Surface Curvature Inverse Design method,the theory upon which it is based, including many of the details involved with shocks,smoothing and cross flow. The application of SCID to wing design poses many challenges,and how they are met is discussed in the context of a number of inverse design test casesfor airfoils and wings. The procedure works well for airfoils, whereas twist optimizationfor transonic wings remains a challenge. The real benchmarks for our hybrid approach arethe three Optimization Discussion Group design problems. Solutions are presented for thedrag minimization of the NACA airfoil along with the wing twist optimization problem,and conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. Work has started on the drag mini-mization of the CRM wing in transonic flight, and final results will be presented in a futurepaper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Harbor: , 2014
Keyword
inverse design, transonic wing
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168151 (URN)10.2514/6.2014-0414 (DOI)2-s2.0-84902795517 (Scopus ID)978-1-62410-256-1 (ISBN)
Conference
52nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting - AIAA Science and Technology Forum and Exposition, SciTech 2014; National Harbor, MD; United States; 13 January 2014 through 17 January 2014
Note

QC 20150527

Available from: 2015-05-27 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2016-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Towards a collaborative and integrated set of open tools for aircraft design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a collaborative and integrated set of open tools for aircraft design
2013 (English)In: 51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition 2013, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luftund Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR) , 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A third generation Multi-Disciplinary Analysis & Optimization setup includes the collaboration of a distributed team of disciplinary experts and their respective anylsis tool to perform aircraft design. The integration of these tools can be eased by the application of open source software leaving more resources for the actual design task. Within the scope of this paper three open tools for aircraft design (OpenVSP, CEASIOM and VAMPzero) are introduced and integrated via a common namespace (CPACS). A design study on a two-engine transport aircraft is set up as an exemplary workflow.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luftund Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), 2013
Keyword
Aircraft design, Design studies, Design tasks, Distributed teams, Multi-disciplinary analysis, Namespaces, Open Source Software, Third generation
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133866 (URN)2-s2.0-84881400383 (Scopus ID)978-162410181-6 (ISBN)
Conference
51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition 2013; Grapevine, TX; United States; 7 January 2013 through 10 January 2013
Note

QC 20131112

Available from: 2013-11-12 Created: 2013-11-11 Last updated: 2015-05-28Bibliographically approved
4. Variable fidelity methods and surrogate modeling of critical loads on X-31 aircraft
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variable fidelity methods and surrogate modeling of critical loads on X-31 aircraft
2013 (English)In: 51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition 2013, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a method for effcient creation of the aerodynamic database for the X-31 experimental aircraft, from low fidelity (Euler) and high fidelity (RANS) CFD. The challenge is to obtain good data for extreme flight conditions. A co-Kriging interpolation model for aerodynamic moments, forces and span loads is used, with an additional decision support system (DSS) using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for data reduction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2013
Keyword
Aerodynamic database, Aerodynamic moment, Decision support system (dss), Flight conditions, Low fidelities, Proper orthogonal decompositions, Surrogate modeling, Variable fidelity
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-133873 (URN)2-s2.0-84881427962 (Scopus ID)978-162410181-6 (ISBN)
Conference
51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition 2013; Grapevine, TX; United States; 7 January 2013 through 10 January 2013
Note

QC 20131112

Available from: 2013-11-12 Created: 2013-11-11 Last updated: 2015-05-28Bibliographically approved
5. Aerodynamic Design Considerations and Shape Optimization of Flying Wings in Transonic Flight
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aerodynamic Design Considerations and Shape Optimization of Flying Wings in Transonic Flight
Show others...
2012 (English)In: 12th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference and 14th AIAA/ISSM17 - 19 September 2012, Indianapolis, Indiana, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2012, 1-17 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper provides a technique that minimize the cruise drag (or maximize L/D) fora blended wing body transport with a number of constraints. The wing shape design isdone by splitting the problem into 2D airfoil design and 3D twist optimization with a frozenplanform. A 45% to 50% reduction of inviscid drag is nally obtained, with desired pitchingmoment. The results indicate that further improvement can be obtained by modifying theplanform and varying the camber more aggressively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2012
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104770 (URN)10.2514/6.2012-5402 (DOI)2-s2.0-84880845100 (Scopus ID)978-1-60086-930-3 (ISBN)
Conference
12th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference and 14th AIAA/ISSM 17 - 19 September 2012, Indianapolis, Indiana
Projects
NOVEMOR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 26767
Note

QC 20121113

Available from: 2012-11-13 Created: 2012-11-12 Last updated: 2015-05-28Bibliographically approved
6. RDS-SUMO: From lofting to physics-based grids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RDS-SUMO: From lofting to physics-based grids
2012 (English)In: Aircraft Engineering, ISSN 0002-2667, Vol. 84, no 3, 140-150 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The goal for this paper is to bring the easy-to-use geometry drawing software RDS to a "solid" mesh, which could be analyzed and simulated in CEASIOM, to enhance both CEASIOM and RDS's capabilities. Design/methodology/approach - The RDS-SUMO interface is developed based on the feature that both RDS and SUMO define their geometric model using cross-sectional information, i.e. their "universe" shapes are close to each other. Findings - The translation is automated and allows the engineer to easily modify and augment the geometry in the process. Two test cases are shown, with their high quality Euler mesh and CFD computations. The A321-look-alike test case tests the mesh quality for transonic aerodynamics, such as high-speed trim and drag divergence; the twin-prop asymmetric aircraft is a "diffi+cult" non-conventional configuration analyzed for yaw stability in one-engine out mode. Practical implications - This paper shows that the CFD solutions based on solid grids could be obtained once the design is proposed and the RDS wireframe model is available. The aerodynamic properties can then be predicted in early design stage, which is very efficient for preliminary aircraft design. Originality/value - This fast meshing tool could obtain "working" grids of a new design within hours.

Keyword
Computer software, Aircraft, Design, RDS, SUMO, Geometry modelling, Fast meshing, Euler computation
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-78954 (URN)10.1108/00022661211221996 (DOI)000305871700003 ()2-s2.0-84861371747 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20120730Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
7. Enhancement of CEASIOM with Rapid-Meshing Tool for Aircraft Conceptual Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancement of CEASIOM with Rapid-Meshing Tool for Aircraft Conceptual Design
2012 (English)In: The journal of Aerospace Science, Technology and Systems, Vol. 91, no 3/4, 79-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper details the development and application of the RDS-SUMO-CEASIOM-EDGE rapid-CFD tool. It uses theRDS CAD model as geometry for automated meshing and CFD analysis to produce an aero-data base for control andstability analysis. It is applied to two non-conventional design proposals, an asymmetric twin-prop aircraft and anairliner with rear Open Rotor propulsion, retractable canard, and a “chin-rudder” instead of vertical tail. For bothconfigurations,yaw control is problematic, and the stability and control analysis is used to assess control surface sizing and stabilityaugmentation system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Associazione italiana di Aeronautica e Astronautica, 2012
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168157 (URN)
Note

QC 20150527

Available from: 2015-05-27 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2015-05-28Bibliographically approved
8. Towards a unified framework using CPACS for geometry management in aircraft design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a unified framework using CPACS for geometry management in aircraft design
Show others...
2012 (English)In: 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, 2012, AIAA 2012-0549- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The performance requirements for the next generations of airliners are stringent and require invention and design of unconventional configurations departing from the classical Cayley functional decomposition. The break with tradition calls for higher fidelity physics-based predictions of performance early on in the project. The paper makes the case for a unified, open, data-centric software environment for aircraft design and describes the merge of the CEASIOM conceptual design software package, developed by a number of partners including KTH, with the CPACS formalized data management system developed at DLR. The system provides multi-fidelity and multi-disciplinary analysis capabilities for concurrent design by geographically distributed expert teams. The data-centric architecture uses the CPACS schema and access mechanisms for management of design data across all disciplines and fidelity levels. This makes the system extensible and mitigates the problems encountered in handing over the model to later design phases. The concepts have been tested by interfacing external modules to CEASIOM/CPACS through a graphical CPACS XML editor, the ACbuilder gateway. Results of comparative analyses on models imported in this way from the RDS and VAMPzero conceptual design packages are reported here. CPACS will be released to the general public in spring '12. The CEASIOM team experience of joining forces via CPACS with DLR is altogether positive and further in-house development of software for aircraft performance prediction and design by the CEASIOM team will use the CPACS system.

Keyword
Access mechanism, Aircraft design, Aircraft performance, Comparative analysis, Concurrent design, Data centric, Data management system, Data-centric architecture, Design data, Design phasis, Expert teams, Functional decomposition, General publics, Geometry management, In-house development, Multi fidelities, Multi-disciplinary analysis, Performance requirements, Physics-based, Software environments, Unified framework, XML-editors, Aircraft, Conceptual design, Exhibitions, Information management
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118762 (URN)10.2514/6.2012-549 (DOI)2-s2.0-84873837527 (Scopus ID)
Conference
50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, 9 January 2012 through 12 January 2012, Nashville, TN
Note

QC 20130226

Available from: 2013-02-26 Created: 2013-02-26 Last updated: 2015-05-28Bibliographically approved
9. Design of a canard configured TransCruiser using CEASIOM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of a canard configured TransCruiser using CEASIOM
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724, Vol. 47, no 8, 695-705 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

CEASIOM is a multidisciplinary software environment for aircraft design that has been developed as part of the European Framework 6 SimSAC project. It closely integrates discipline-specific tools such as those used for CAD, grid generation, CFD, stability analysis and control system design. The environment allows the user to take an initial design from geometry definition and aerodynamics generation through to full six degrees of freedom simulation and analysis. Key capabilities include variable fidelity aerodynamics tools and aeroelasticity modules. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of CEASIOM by presenting the results of a Design, Simulate and Evaluate (DSE) exercise applied to a novel, project specific, transonic cruiser configuration called the TCR. The baseline TCR configuration is first defined using conventional methods, which is then refined and improved within the CEASIOM software environment. A wind tunnel model of this final configuration was then constructed, tested and used to verify the results generated using CEASIOM.

Keyword
Aircraft design, Aerodynamics, Flight dynamics, Flight control, CFD, Simulation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-61003 (URN)10.1016/j.paerosci.2011.08.011 (DOI)000298126800010 ()2-s2.0-81155137799 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20120116Available from: 2012-01-16 Created: 2012-01-16 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
10. Collaborative Aircraft Design Methodology using ADAS linked to CEASIOM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaborative Aircraft Design Methodology using ADAS linked to CEASIOM
2014 (English)In: 32nd AIAA Applied Aerodynamic Conference, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aircraft design stages, conceptual and preliminary, are necessarily collaborative bytheir very nature. An example design carried out in this paper brings the collaborativeaspects of design to life by two academic groups, one in Naples and one in Stockholm, usingtheir own tools ADAS and CEASIOM, working respectively on conceptual and preliminarydesign. The ADAS tool is primarily empirically-based design methodology, and the CEA-SIOM tool is primarily physics-based design methodology. The example chosen is a FAR-23compliant 16-seat twin turboprop aircraft. The high-wing configuration resulting from theADAS conceptual design is the down-selected to CEASIOM where a water-tight model of thegeometry is constructed, a volume grid is generated and 16 flight conditions are simulatedby solutions of the Euler equations, some with propeller off, and others with propellerin order to judge the effect of the propeller wash over the main wing and horizontal tailsurface. Detailed comparisons between ADAS results and CEASIOM results for stability &control characteristics are carried out. In general there is reasonable agreement betweenthe two sets, considering that the empiricisms in ADAS account for viscous effects where asthe CEASIOM are purely inviscid (but nonlinear). The largest discrepancy appears in thepitching moment contribution from the horizontal tail, and various explanations for thisare suggested, including possible effects of the main wing downwash and wake on the tail.

Keyword
Collaborative aircraft design, ADAS, CEASIOM, Euler computation, actuator disk model
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168164 (URN)10.2514/6.2014-2012 (DOI)2-s2.0-84903904013 (Scopus ID)
Conference
32nd AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference 2014; Atlanta, GA; United States; 16 June 2014 through 20 June 2014
Note

QC 20150527

Available from: 2015-05-27 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2015-06-10Bibliographically approved

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